QR&Os: Volume I - Chapter 18 Honours

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Amendment List:

  • 5 June 2008 Amended Article: 18.27

History:

Section 1 - General

18.01 - HONOURS

For the purposes of this section, "honours" means all categories of national awards emanating from the Queen, through the Governor General, that may be made available to members of the Canadian Forces.

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18.02 - POLICY AIMS

The Canadian Forces Honours Policy is not concerned with the creation of a specific honour but has been developed under the auspices of the Honours Policy Committee and approved by the Prime Minister on 15 September 1982 in order to:

  1. offer systematic guidance and regulations with respect to the creation of military honours;
  2. prevent the creation of new honours from diminishing the worth of existing Canadian honours; and
  3. make sure that no new military decoration will duplicate existing national decorations or adversely affect the eligibility of military personnel for existing national decorations.

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18.03 - ESTABLISHMENT OF PARTICULAR HONOURS

(1) Proposals for the establishment of particular honours must fall within the categories listed and adhere to the principles and follow the method of submission noted in paragraphs (2), (3) and (4).

(2) The categories and qualifying criteria for the different types of honours are as follows:

  1. orders of merit - for outstanding achievement or service;
  2. decorations -
    1. bravery (in active combat in the face of an armed enemy) - for bravery above and beyond the call of duty in military operations against an armed enemy,
    2. bravery (not in the face of an armed enemy) - for bravery involving risk of life or limb in situations not involving military operations against an armed enemy, and
    3. outstanding professional achievement - for demonstrating exceptional professional skill in a specific activity; and
  3. medals -
    1. war service - for military service in a clearly defined locality for a specified duration to recognize service in a theatre of active operations,
    2. general service - for military service in a clearly defined locality for a specified duration to recognize service under exceptional circumstances not necessarily in a theatre of active operations,
    3. commemorative - for participation in a special occasion or anniversary at the national level, and
    4. long service and good conduct - for completion of a prescribed period of service under terms of efficiency and conduct.

(3) The principles to be observed in instituting honours are as follows:

  1. compatibility - any specific proposal must be compatible with the existing system of Canadian decorations;
  2. duplication - no new military decoration should duplicate the existing national decorations;
  3. eligibility - no new military decoration should adversely affect the eligibility of military personnel for existing national decorations;
  4. respect - fundamental to the concept of honours is that they carry prestige and that their raison d'être is to recognize an accomplishment commanding the respect of members of the military, the general public and the person honoured;
  5. equitability - non-recognition of this factor could produce the negative effect of dissatisfaction rather than improve morale since, if an honour is bestowed for duty under certain circumstances, similar kinds of duty and circumstances should also be rewarded; and
  6. credibility - this factor is related to respect since, to be credible, an honour must represent a worthy endeavour and it must not represent routine duty.

(4) Any specific proposal will require examination by the Honours Policy Committee for the purpose of advising the Prime Minister on the matter.

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18.04 - AWARD OF HONOURS

The orders, decorations and medals, other than commemorative medals, for which members of the Canadian Forces are eligible, and the general conditions for their award, are set forth in orders issued by the Chief of the Defence Staff.

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18.05 - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AWARD

When a recommendation for the award of an order or decoration has been made, it shall not be divulged to the officer or non-commissioned member concerned or to any of the member's relatives, nor shall a relative of a deceased or missing member be informed that a recommendation would have been made had the member remained with his unit.

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18.06 - PRESENTATION OF HONOURS

Procedures for investitures for orders and decorations and for presentation of medals are set forth in orders issued by the Chief of the Defence Staff.

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18.07 - COMMONWEALTH AND FOREIGN ORDERS, DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

(1) Members of the Canadian Forces shall not accept a Commonwealth or foreign order, decoration or medal of whatever kind or class without prior approval from National Defence Headquarters.

(2) No Commonwealth or foreign award shall be approved for acceptance under paragraph (1) unless the approval is consistent with the Regulations Respecting the Acceptance and Wearing by Canadians of Commonwealth and Foreign Orders, Decorations and Medals promulgated by the Secretary of State Department.

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18.08 - TRANSMISSION OF MEDALS

Medals may be transmitted by registered mail and the commanding officer shall ensure their safe custody pending presentation.

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18.09 - DISPOSAL OF HONOURS

(1) Any order, decoration or medal belonging to an officer or non-commissioned member or to which an officer or non-commissioned member is entitled and which is in the care or custody of the commanding officer shall:

  1. be forwarded to National Defence Headquarters if the officer or non-commissioned member is
    1. absent without authority for 30 days, or
    2. sent to a mental institution on release; or
  2. form part of the service estate if the officer or non-commissioned member dies while serving. (See article 25.08 - Committee of adjustment to Deal with a Service Estate.)

(2) When any order, decoration or medal is forwarded to National Defence Headquarters pursuant to sub-sub-paragraph (1)(a)(ii), the commanding officer shall notify National Defence Headquarters of the date of release and the name of the institution to which the officer or non-commissioned member is sent.

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(18.10: NOT ALLOCATED)


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Section 2 - Wearing

18.11 - GENERAL

(1) No officer or non-commissioned member shall wear an order, decorations, medal or the ribbon representing any of them without authority.

(2) The order and manner of wearing orders, decorations, medals and the ribbons representing them shall be as notified by the Chief of the Defence Staff.

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18.12 - NON-MILITARY DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

(1) No officer or non-commissioned member when in uniform shall wear a non-military decoration or medal, or the ribbon representing any such decoration or medal, except:

  1. the Albert Medal, the Edward Medal, a Board of Trade Medal, a Life Saving Medal of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem;
  2. the Medals of the Royal Humane Society, the Royal Canadian Humane Association Medal, a Medal of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution; and
  3. a decoration or medal awarded by or on behalf of a foreign government.

(2) The decorations and medals mentioned in subparagraph (1)(a) are classified as official and those mentioned in subparagraphs (1)(b) and (c) are classified as non-official.

(3) Only one official and one non-official decoration or medal, or the ribbon representing the decoration or medal, may be worn for one act of gallantry.

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18.13 - WEARING AND CARRYING OF MEDALS WHILE ON OPERATIONS

No officer or non-commissioned member shall carry or wear an order, decoration or medal while engaged in operations against the enemy.

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(18.14 TO 18.19 INCLUSIVE: NOT ALLOCATED)


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Section 3 - Replacement

18.20 - REPLACEMENT

(1) Orders, service decorations and medals may be replaced at public expense only when the loss is due to unavoidable circumstances arising out of the exigencies of the Service.

(2) Orders, service decorations and medals, the loss of which is due to circumstances not arising out of the exigencies of the Service, may be replaced on prepayment.

(3) Orders, decorations and medals, other than British orders, service decorations and medals, may be replaced only under the conditions prescribed by the issuing authority

(4) An application from a former officer or non-commissioned member for the replacement of a decoration or medal lost by the member must be accompanied by a statutory declaration as to the circumstances under which the original decoration or medal was lost and the steps taken to effect recovery.

(5) Replacement of a decoration or medal referred to in paragraph (4) shall be on prepayment only and shall not be made before the expiration of two months from the date of loss.

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(18.21 TO 18.24 INCLUSIVE: NOT ALLOCATED)


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Section 4 - Forfeiture and Restoration

18.25 - BRITISH ORDERS, SERVICE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

(1) British orders and certain service decorations and medals may be forfeited and restored only under authority of the statutes and royal warrants governing them.

(2) In no circumstances shall a court martial order the forfeiture of any orders, decorations or medals referred to in paragraph (1).

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(18.26: NOT ALLOCATED)

18.27 - FORFEITURE AND RESTORATION OF DECORATIONS AND MEDALS OTHER THAN THOSE AWARDED FOR GALLANTRY AND WAR MEDALS

(1) An officer or non-commissioned member shall forfeit any decoration or medal awarded to the member or to which the member may be entitled for long service, good conduct, efficiency to meritorious service other than gallantry, where the members is:

  1. sentenced to life imprisonment; (5 June 2008)
  2. sentenced to dismissal with disgrace from Her Majesty's service;
  3. sentenced to dismissal from Her Majesty's service; or
  4. released for misconduct;

(2) An officer or non-commissioned member may be ordered by the Minister to forfeit any decoration or medal awarded to the member or to which the member may be entitled for long service, good conduct, efficiency or meritorious service other than gallantry, where the member is:

  1. convicted by a civil authority of any serious offence; or
  2. convicted of an offence of treason, sedition, mutiny, cowardice, desertion or a disgraceful offence against morality;

(3) Any decoration or medal forfeited may be restored at the discretion of the Minister.

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18.28 - FORFEITURE AND RESTORATION OF WAR MEDALS AWARDED FOR SERVICE PRIOR TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR

(1) An officer or non-commissioned member may be ordered by the Minister to forfeit any war medal awarded to the member for service prior to the Second World War, where the member is:

  1. sentenced to death;
  2. sentenced to dismissal with disgrace from Her Majesty's service;
  3. sentenced to dismissal from Her Majesty's service; or
  4. released for misconduct.

(2) Any medal forfeited under this article may be restored at the discretion of the Minister.

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18.29 - FORFEITURE AND RESTORATION OF CAMPAIGN STARS, WAR MEDALS AND CLASPS AWARDED FOR SERVICE DURING OR AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR

(1) An officer or non-commissioned member shall forfeit any campaign stars, medals and clasps thereof listed in the table to this article where the member is:

  1. convicted of treason, sedition, mutiny, cowardice, desertion or a disgraceful offence against morality; or
  2. sentenced to
    1. dismissal with disgrace from Her Majesty's service, or
    2. dismissal from Her Majesty's service.

(2) Subject to paragraph (4), the Chief of the Defence Staff or such officer as he may designate may restore campaign stars, medals and clasps forfeited under paragraph (1) where the officer or non-commissioned member who forfeited them has performed meritorious service or is otherwise specially recommended.

(3) Subject to paragraph (4), the Chief of the Defence Staff or such officer as he may designate may restore to an officer or non-commissioned member the campaign stars, medals and clasps forfeited under subparagraph (1)(a) if:

  1. the member has completed
    1. three years of continuous service since being released from imprisonment or detention,
    2. three years of continuous service since the date of the member's conviction where no imprisonment or detention was imposed, or
    3. less than the years continuous service specified in sub-subparagraphs (i) and (ii), where the member's service has been terminated by release; and
  2. during the period of service prescribed in sub-paragraph (a), the member has committed no offence or any offence which has been committed is considered by the Chief of the Defence Staff or such officer as he may designate not to have been of a serious nature.

(4) A campaign star, medal or clasp forfeited under this article may not be restored:

  1. under sub-subparagraph (3)(a)(iii), where it has been forfeited by reason of conviction of treason, sedition, mutiny or cowardice; or
  2. where it was forfeited for desertion that occurred during the period for which it was instituted, unless the officer or non-commissioned member concerned has, subsequent to his return from desertion, rendered a minimum of one day's paid service before the date shown in the table to this article as the terminal date of the period for which the campaign star, medal or clasp was instituted.

(5) Campaign stars, medals and clasps forfeited shall be forwarded to National Defence Headquarters for custody.

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TABLE TO ARTICLE 18.29

STAR OR MEDALTERMINAL DATE
The Africa Star 12 May, 1943
The Air Crew Europe Star 5 June, 1944
   
The 1939-45 Star (for operational service other than in the Pacific Theatre) 8 May, 1945
The Atlantic Star 8 May, 1945
The Italy Star 8 May, 1945
The France and Germany Star 8 May, 1945
   
The 1939-45 Star (for operational service in the Pacific Theatre) 2 September, 1945
The Pacific Star 2 September, 1945
The Burma Star 2 September, 1945
The Defence Medal 2 September, 1945
The War Medal 1939-45 2 September, 1945
The Canadian Volunteer Service Medal 2 September, 1945
   
The Korea Medal 27 July, 1953
The United Nations Service Medal 27 July, 1954
The United Nations Emergency Force Medal 19 May, 1967
United Nations Medals as announced

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(18.30 TO 18.99 INCLUSIVE: NOT ALLOCATED)