Section III: Analysis of Programs and Internal Services

Program 1.0: Defence Combat and Support Operations

The Defence Combat and Support Operations Program delivers military power in combat, security, stability and surveillance operations in response to armed threats, or potential armed aggression, for the purpose of protecting Canadian sovereignty, upholding the values of Canadians, and defending the interests of the Government of Canada. Results are achieved through this Program by the application of Defence capabilities in domestic, continental and international domains, either independently or in combination with allies, where the primary focus is to inflict military effects against threats. The term Defence capability is a collective term that refers to the ability of a military force to achieve a desired effect against a threat during the execution of a Defence operation (or the delivery of a Defence service) by executing tasks according to understood concepts, doctrine and standards. The military forces delivered by Defence are composed of force elements which are organizational entities that are in-turn composed of members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), and in some cases personnel from the Department of National Defence (DND). Force elements integrate people, with specialized information and expertise, materiel (e.g., equipment, platforms, weapon systems) and in some cases real property, so that capabilities can be applied against threats. Force elements have different sizes and compositions according to the capabilities they must apply during an operation. This Program is underpinned by the National Defence Act, defence policy, international treaties and agreements, membership in international organizations, and direction received by the Government of Canada. Sub-programs beneath this Program target a range of threats across a variety of operational contexts via different delivery mechanisms in different geographic regions.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Domestic security and the sovereignty of Canada

The Canadian Armed Forces continued to ensure Canada’s territory is secure and protected through presence, surveillance and localized responses. A year-round presence was maintained in Canada’s northern region through the activities of Joint Task Force (North) and a host of joint exercises and annual sovereignty operations held in the high, western, and eastern Arctic. These activities demonstrated Canada’s ability to exercise sovereignty in the region, advanced CAF capabilities to conduct Arctic operations, and improved whole-of-government coordination and interoperability in response to northern safety and security issues.

  • Op NANOOK is the largest annual sovereignty operation that occurs in Canada’s North. Op NANOOK was based out of Inuvik, Northwest Territories from 16-30 August 2015. Approximately 650 military personnel and 150 northern partners participated in the operation. Three primary training scenarios were conducted:  a simulated maritime oil spill in the Beaufort Sea; Arctic security training in the region of the Tuktoyaktuk Northern Warning System sites; and a simulated wildfire event in the south Slave region.
  • Op NUNALIVUT was conducted from 1-22 April 2015 with three distinct lines of operation. 1 Canadian Ranger Patrol Group conducted a sovereignty patrol in the Victoria Island area, and soldiers from the Third Battalion Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry conducted two separate patrols running east of Cambridge Bay. Joint Ice Diving operations were conducted by Parks Canada’s underwater archeologists and Royal Canadian Navy divers on the sea ice in the vicinity of Gjoa Haven, Nunavut. Ice diving operations included a joint archeological effort over the site of Her Majesty’s Ship Erebus.
  • Op NUNAKPUT occurred from 6-23 July 2015. CAF members conducted maritime patrols along the Mackenzie River from Hay River to Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories alongside partners from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The primary goals of Op NUNAKPUT were asserting sovereignty over Canada’s northernmost regions, as well as maintaining interoperability between the Canadian Rangers and other government departments in order to maximize effectiveness of responses to safety and security issues in the North. The Canadian Rangers also conducted training exercises with other government departments in the areas of small boat handling, navigation course charting, man overboard recovery, towing, reaction to distress signals, and communication.

Continental Defence and North American Aerospace Defense Command

The Canadian Armed Forces deployed personnel and capabilities to successfully conduct defence security and continental operations, including through existing Canada-United States agreements, to deliver military power within Canada and across North America and to protect and defend Canada. Canada’s close and long-standing relationship with the United States in North American defence and global security provides both countries with greater security than could be achieved individually.

  • National Defence continued to work together with the United States in the bi-national North American Aerospace Defense Command 20 (NORAD) to monitor and defend North American airspace and maritime approaches. National Defence employed forces to support the NORAD mission of aerospace warning, aerospace control, and maritime warning and successfully met its obligations and commitments. The NORAD Inspector General conducted an evaluation of five Canadian NORAD region units and assessed them as NORAD Mission Ready.
  • In January 2016, Canada and the United States established a Bi-National Steering Group to provide recommendations on future Northern surveillance systems, including on operational requirements. National Defence began a multi-year process to modernize NORAD to ensure it is positioned to deliver on its missions and meet threats to North America going forward. National Defence also established an internal Defence NORAD Steering Committee, with representation across DND and the CAF, to examine NORAD issues and provide advice to senior DND/CAF decision-makers.
  • New and emerging threats pose challenges to both nations' ability to protect North America. Our aging capabilities highlight the requirement to modernize NORAD with both materiel and non-materiel solutions. To meet these complex challenges, our close relationship was further maintained through bilateral defence forums to discuss new and emerging threats, as well as training and exercises aimed at improving operational capability to defend North America.
  • As part of Op CARIBBE 21, Canada continued to contribute CAF ships and aircraft to Op MARTILLO – a joint, combined and interagency effort by Canada, France, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States to prevent illicit trafficking in the Caribbean Sea, the eastern Pacific Ocean, and the coastal waters of Central America.
    • During FY 2015-16, CAF aircraft, warships and personnel directly contributed to the seizure or disruption of approximately 13.5 metric tons of cocaine and 3.4 metric tons of marijuana that might have been used to fund transnational criminal organizations operating in Central America and the Caribbean. This amount represents more than any other year since the CAF began supporting Op CARIBBE in 2006.
    • The CAF contributed two CP-140 Aurora maritime patrol aircraft as well as the following nine warships: six maritime coastal defence vessels (HMC Ships Brandon, Edmonton, Moncton, Summerside, Saskatoon and Whitehorse); two Halifax-class frigates with their embarked CH-124 Sea King Helicopter (HMC Ships Winnipeg and Vancouver); and one Iroquois-class destroyer with its two embarked CH-124 Sea King Helicopters (HMCS Athabaskan). The CP-140 Auroras flew 145 hours and the CH-124 Sea Kings flew 150 hours. The warships deployed for a combined total of 346 days during the operation in 2015-16.

International operations in support of Canada’s national interest

Internationally, National Defence continued to meet its personnel requirements to support United Nations, NATO, and independent missions, applied defence capabilities against armed threats outside of North America, and advanced the interests of the Government of Canada.

CAF contributions to United Nations peace-support and stabilization included:

  • Participation in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (Op HAMLET 22);
  • Technical planning and operational expertise at UNMISS Force Headquarters in Juba and at various locations throughout the Republic of South Sudan (Op SOPRANO 23);
  • Approximately 150 CAF personnel to the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai Peninsula (Op CALUMET 24); and
  • Four military personnel to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO 25) in the Middle East (Op JADE 26).

Since NATO’s founding 65 years ago, the CAF has been a major contributor to Alliance operations and exercises and remains committed to transatlantic unity, security, and stability. Canada continued to provide modern, deployable capabilities to allied missions and highly trained personnel to its command structure.

  • The Canadian Armed Forces continued to conduct military activities to support NATO assurance measures in Central and Eastern Europe through the provision of military capabilities for training, exercises, demonstrations and assigned NATO tasks. Under Op REASSURANCE 27, the Canadian Armed Forces response promoted security and stability in the region, and demonstrated the readiness and professionalism of the CAF. The mission was formally extended by the Government of Canada until 31 March 2019.
    • In April 2014, the CAF deployed an Air Task Force comprising six CF-188 Hornets from 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron, based at 3 Wing Bagotville.
    • The CAF further committed modernized ships to the operation. The crews of HMCS Fredericton and Winnipeg, the first ships to deploy following completion of the Halifax Class Modernization program, demonstrated the formidable capabilities of our modern frigates, while serving alongside our NATO allies.
    • From May 2014 to December 2015, the CAF deployed a rifle coy force to participate in multinational military training activities. 
  • As part of Canada’s response to requests from the Government of Ukraine, the CAF, with support from Global Affairs Canada, provided military training and capacity building to Ukrainian Armed Forces personnel to support Ukraine in its efforts to maintain sovereignty, security and stability. Between September 2015 and March 2016, close to 900 members of the Ukrainian Armed Forces have participated in the individual training provided by the CAF through Op UNIFIER 28. Training is conducted in seven different lines of efforts that develop expertise in specific areas such as: small team training, combat first aid, explosive ordnance disposal and improved explosive device disposal, military police techniques, logistics systems modernization, flight safety training and other training under the auspices of the Military Training and Cooperation Program. 
  • National Defence provided advice on Canadian priorities for key NATO decision making processes. Furthermore, Defence ensured that all potential opportunities for Canadian participation in NATO operations and placement of Canadian personnel in NATO billets were thoroughly analyzed for strategic impact and adherence to national policy guidelines.

The Canadian Armed Forces further contributed to international peace and security by protecting Canadian interests abroad and working with coalition forces to address commonly perceived threats.

  • Op IMPACT 29 is the CAF contribution to the Global Coalition to counter Daesh in Iraq and Syria. On 8 February 2016, the Government of Canada announced its renewed and enhanced whole-of-government approach to the fight against Daesh. This includes an increase in the size of the train, advise and assist mission, the deployment of helicopters, an increased intelligence contribution and capacity-building for regional partners. The military engagement in Iraq and Syria under Op IMPACT is extended until 31 March 2017.
    •  In accordance with Government of Canada direction, the six CF-188 Hornets ended their mission as part of Joint Task Force – Iraq on 15 February 2016. Through the conduct of strikes against fixed and dynamic targets in Daesh-controlled areas in Iraq and Syria, the CF-188’s achieved a range of effects on Daesh fighting positions, equipment, vehicles, improvised explosive device factories and storage facilities. The CAF continues to provide air-to-air refueling and intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance assets to the Coalition.
    • A vote took place in the House of Commons on 8 March in support of CAF contributions to the Middle East Stabilization Force. The total number of CAF members deployed under Op IMPACT is increased from 650 to approximately 830, which includes tripling the size of the train, advise and assist mission in support of the Iraqi security forces.
    • A Ministerial Liaison Team (MLT) was launched in March 2016 under Canadian leadership with a mandate to help connect with Iraqi ministries of Defence and Interior in order to further synchronize Coalition efforts to clear Daesh from Iraq, while providing strategic military support to the Government of Iraq. Based in Baghdad, and embedded within the Coalition Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR), the MLT is composed of approximately 30 personnel from Canada and senior military members from Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom, Norway, Estonia, Germany and the Netherlands. 
  • Op ARTEMIS 30 is the CAF contribution to counter-terrorism and maritime security operations across the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean. Canada is one of 30 nations that contribute naval assets to the naval coalition. From December 2015 to April 2016, seven CAF members deployed to Op ARTEMIS. Under the command of the Australian Defence Force, the CAF contingent  consisted of five officers and two non-commissioned members of the Royal Canadian Navy, including the Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff of Combined Task Force (CTF) 150. The other members worked in planning, logistics, and as watch-keepers. The CAF contingent supporting the CTF-150 participated in the tactical control of 19 frigates, destroyers and patrol craft from different nations. In March 2016, an Australian ship seized a large weapons cache from a vessel heading towards the coast of Somalia. Later that month, a French ship seized a vessel full of weapons also believed to be destined for Somalia.
  • In support of operational excellence both at home and abroad, National Defence worked to nurture and deepen existing partnerships and to create new ones. The Military Training Cooperation Program  enhanced curriculum and course delivery at the Malaysian Peace Support Training Centre, continued to build on Canada’s partnership with Indonesian Armed Forces and engaged with the Philippines and regional partners with an inaugural courses on Gender, Peace and Security. Canada’s involvement within the Caribbean continued to evolve through the conduct of naval Boarding Party Training with the Jamaican Defence Force to counter illegal smuggling to the continued support of regional training centres to advance aviation, counter-terrorism and maritime training.

Military Diplomacy and Global Engagement

The Canadian Joint Operations Command coordinated 103 global engagements. All engagements were chosen to yield benefits in terms of operational reach, agility and interoperability for CAF deployed missions.

The NATO Flying Training in Canada (NFTC) program continued to provide world-class pilot training that will prepare military pilots for air operations. Success of the program is measured by the contracted number of CAF and foreign pilots who achieve the required skill sets to progress to operational aircraft on time. For FY 2015-16, the NFTC program had a total of 185 students starting, of which 13 were foreign students.

In FY 2015-16, the CAF trained and educated over 300 foreign students from 45 different countries at its training and education establishments in Canada creating and deepening important links with partners around the globe. Furthermore, the CAF has delivered training and education to over 1000 students in 11 different countries through expert led visits, courses and seminars. These activities provide significant visibility for Canada and the CAF and help promote Canadian values abroad.

For information on cost estimates for CAF operations, please see the Cost Estimate for Canadian Armed Forces Major Continental and International Operations 31 web page.

For more information of current and past operations 32, visit the National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces website.

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

1,294,500,580

1,294,500,580

1,577,586,094

1,360,079,139

65,578,560

Notes:

  1. Due to rounding, figures may not add up to the totals shown.
  2. The difference is related to the exclusion of new 2015-16 funding for Op IMPACT and Op UNIFIER which was not available at the time of the 2015-16 Report on Plans and Priorities and to a change in methodology for Military Pay attribution.

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

5,947

5,785

(162)

Civilian

624

688

64

TOTAL

6,571

6,473

(98)

Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.

 Performance Results

Expected Results

Performance Indicators

  Targets  

Actual Results

The application of Canadian Defence and Security capabilities continuously protects the sovereignty of Canada, the values of Canadians and the interests of the Government of Canada against risks imposed by armed threats.

% of Defence Combat and Support Operations that have successfully achieved their operational objectives.

90 - 100%

97%

 

 Canadian Armed Forces contribution to the Middle East Stabilization Force

Kuwait, 4 April 2016 – An aviation technician performs general maintenance on a CP-140 Aurora engine in Kuwait during Operation IMPACT.

Under Operation IMPACT, Canada’s CP-140 Aurora flies missions that gather essential intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance data and information. As of March 22, 2016, the Aurora has flown 437 sorties, with the technicians achieving an incredible 97.6 per cent mission launch rate.

Photo: Op IMPACT, DND

Through the refocused Canadian Armed Forces efforts to the Middle East Stabilization Force, Canada is playing an important role, alongside its partners, in setting the conditions for Iraqi security forces to achieve long-term success through self-sustainable security.

The CC-150 Polaris and CP-140 Aurora aircraft continue to conduct air-to-air refueling and aerial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions in support of coalition air operations.

In accordance with Government of Canada direction, the CAF ceased airstrike operations 33 by CF-18 Hornets in Iraq and Syria on 15 February 2016 and the Air Task Force – Iraq transitioned its support to coalition operations 34 Military engagement in Iraq and Syria under Operation IMPACT is extended until 31 March 2017.

Program 2.0: Defence Services and Contributions to Government

The Defence Services and Contributions to Government Program aims to support the delivery of Canadian Government safety and security initiatives and encourage recognition and pride in Canada and the Canadian military. This is accomplished through the provision of unique Defence services in support of other elements of Government or the Canadian public. To encourage and share pride and awareness of Canada’s military heritage, contributions, and leadership, Defence provides unique services and opportunities for outreach, awareness, preservation and development. Defence unique services also include operations conducted to ensure or enhance the security, safety, stability and/or well-being of Canadians, or international populations in peril, in accordance with Canadian values and the interests of the Canadian Government, in situations where there may be a need to defend against armed threats but where this is not the primary focus. The operations are delivered through the employment of force elements to achieve a desired effect within specific contexts through execution of tasks according to understood concepts, doctrine and standards. The force elements delivered by Defence are organizational entities which are composed of members of the Canadian Armed Forces and in some cases personnel from the Department of National Defence. Force elements have different sizes and compositions according to the capabilities they must apply during an operation. Defence remains consistently ready to employ force elements under this Program; however, significant operations do not always occur every fiscal year.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

The Canadian Armed Forces successfully conducted operations to support Canadian Government safety, security and stability initiatives.

Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Operations

When a major natural disaster occurs in Canada, provincial and territorial authorities are the first to respond. If the province or territory becomes overwhelmed by the disaster, the Canadian Armed Forces is ready to help. Operation LENTUS 35 is the name given to CAF activities undertaken in response to a domestic natural disaster.

  • In April 2015, the CAF supported the Province of Ontario in providing assistance to residents of Kashechewan affected by spring flooding. Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) helicopters were placed on standby and prepositioned close to the affected region in order to complement provincial air evacuation if the need arose. Several Canadian Rangers from the affected communities assisted in voluntary evacuation activities.
  • Following intense wildfires, the Province of Saskatchewan requested support from the Federal Government on 4 July 2015. As a result, approximately 850 CAF members, including approximately 110 Primary Reservists, deployed to northern Saskatchewan to support local and provincial firefighting efforts by conducting fire line operations including patrols, surveillance, digging and control near cities and critical infrastructure: putting out hotspots in and around vulnerable communities; and providing logistic support such as moving fire hoses. In addition to contingents from the Regular and Reserve Force of the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Rangers were well represented. Two CH-146 Griffon helicopters from 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron provided air transport, while Rangers from the 4th Canadian Ranger Patrol Group provided transportation by boat and served as a crucial link between the CAF and the communities where they were operating.

The CAF provided international assistance in response to natural disasters, health crises and humanitarian emergencies.

  • On 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake devastated western and central regions of Nepal. A second major earthquake hit the country on 12 May 2015. Under Operation RENAISSANCE, CAF members began deploying to the region on 26 April 2015 as part of a Government of Canada response led by Global Affairs Canada (GAC). Approximately 200 personnel were deployed to assist in various tasks such as engineering, medical aid, liaison services, and mapping. By the end of the mission, the Disaster Response Assistance Team (DART) had: distributed 75 water filtration units; enabled access to clean safe drinking water for approximately 3,400 people; treated more than 700 Nepalese patients; provided 750 maps and imagery products to the Nepalese and foreign militaries, NGOs and UN agencies; removed more than 3,000 cubic meters of rubble and cleared roads allowing access to approximately 204,000 Nepalese; enabled more than 300 public safety announcements; and distributed more than 355 crank radios to connect remote communities with relief efforts.
  • The 2014 outbreak of the Ebola virus disease is the deadliest occurrence of the disease since it was discovered in 1976. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 27,500 people have been infected during the outbreak, with more than 11,000 of those cases resulting in fatalities. The magnitude of the outbreak overwhelmed local clinics and healthcare workers in West Africa. In FY 2015-16, the CAF Task Force continued its operations at the United Kingdom’s Kerry Town Treatment Unit in Sierra Leone. Under Operation SIRONA, three rotations were carried out over six months and a total of 79 CAF healthcare and support staff worked alongside military partners from the UK to treat local and international healthcare workers who were exposed to the Ebola virus disease. The mission ended on 30 June 2015.
  • Since the outbreak of the Syrian civil war in 2011, millions of people have fled the country seeking safety and resettlement internationally. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, since the beginning of 2015, more than 720,000 refugees and migrants had crossed the Mediterranean, undertaking journeys from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Sudan, and other regions torn apart by war, hunger and violence. On 9 November 2015, the Government of Canada officially announced its commitment to welcome 25,000 Syrian refugees from Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan to Canada by the end of February 2016, with an initial group of 10,000 arriving by 31 December 2015. Operation PROVISION was the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF) support to the Government of Canada’s initiative. Between November 2015 and February 2016, approximately 290 CAF personnel deployed overseas to assist Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) in the screening of thousands of refugees destined for Canada. In total, CAF medical personnel completed more than 15,400 immigration medical examinations. CAF support overseas ended on 29 February 2016. In Canada, numerous CAF personnel, including approximately 450 Primary Reservists, prepared CAF bases to temporarily house refugees once they arrived in Canada but were not required. Numerous other personnel continue to contribute to the Government’s effort with support in Canada, including the availability of Interim Lodging Sites at Canadian Forces Bases Valcartier and Kingston. 

Defence Services for Canadian Safety and Security

The Canadian Safety and Security Program (CSSP) is a federally-funded program with a mandate to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural disasters, serious accidents, crime, and terrorism through the convergence of science and technology (S&T) with the policy, operations, and intelligence functions. The CSSP is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for Security Science, in partnership with Public Safety Canada, which provides policy guidance to the program. The program supports federal, provincial, territorial, or municipal government-led S&T projects in collaboration with end-users (e.g., first responders and emergency management organizations), non-governmental agencies, industry and academia.

The following are selected program highlights from FY 2015-16:

  • A real-time radar imaging technology was developed in partnership with the Canada-US Sensor Sharing Project to improve coverage, bi-national interoperability and provide real-time vessel tracking;
  • A science-based capability exercise (CAPEX 2015) was led to validate operational response to chemical, biological and radiological terrorism;
  • The "Rapid City Planner" was fielded to provide rapid modelling of blast effects in the urban environment. It supports major event planning and response, critical infrastructure assessment and evaluation of other security and public safety risk scenarios;
  • A security architecture for the Parliamentary Precinct was provided to improve all aspects of security on Parliament Hill; and
  • Technical specifications and recommended practices were provided for the development and rolling out of the National Public Alerting System designed to warn Canadian of dangers through such means as radio, cable television, satellite television, email and SMS text services.

Search and Rescue Operations

The primary Search and Rescue 36 (SAR) responsibility of the Canadian Armed Forces is the provision of aeronautical SAR and the coordination of the aeronautical and maritime SAR system. CAF resources may also assist in ground SAR efforts, medical evacuations and other humanitarian incidents if requested by the responsible provincial/territorial or municipal authority. The Canadian Rangers, a sub-component of the CAF Reserve Force, regularly aid in ground SAR upon request in sparsely settled regions of the country.

In 2015-16, the Canadian Armed Forces coordinated aeronautical, maritime and humanitarian response to 9,567 SAR incidents. 1,924 of these cases had a final classification of 1 (Distress) or 2 (Imminent Distress) generating 430 Royal Canadian Air Force taskings of which 28 were handled by non-Primary SAR aircraft (Aurora, Griffon, Twin Otter). There were no missions where the primary SAR asset was unable to complete the mission due to weather or serviceability. Canadian Armed Forces primary SAR assets, in some cases with the assistance of other organization’s assets, were tasked in support of 28 missions.  In some cases other organization’s assets solely handled the task due to their proximity or the nature of the distress. Joint Rescue Coordination Centres utilize assets of opportunity, if they are available, in order to expedite case resolution.

Military Heritage and Outreach

In FY 2015-16, National Defence continued to promote recognition and pride in Canada and the Canadian military. Through the Military Heritage and Outreach Program, National Defence:

  • Moved forward with investigations into five cases involving 25 sets of human remains from past conflicts. Ongoing genealogical research and genetic testing have significantly narrowed the candidate field in the programme's largest case involving 17 soldiers. The CAF Forensic Odontology Response Team remained integrally involved in the identification of Canadian soldiers from past conflicts, enhancing the capability to perform positive identifications of Canada’s fallen. Progress is achieved when historic casualties are buried with a name by their unit in the presence of family and when Canadians recognize their service and sacrifice. A successful identification fosters a strong sense of continuity and identity within the CAF;
  • Provided a delegation of approximately 150 CAF members to mark the 70th Anniversary of the Liberation of The Netherlands;
  • Provided a delegation to support the Minister of State (Foreign Affairs and Consular) at the international event in Turkey to mark the 100th Anniversary of the Battle of Gallipoli in April 2015;
  • Created a new CAF formation, the National Cadet and Junior Canadian Rangers Support Group, as part of the Renewal of the Youth Program. Their role is to manage the Youth Program by providing direction on policy, budget, training, administration and support, and command and control the Regional Cadet Support Units and subordinate organizations; and
  • Continued to make progress with the Renewal of the Cadet and Junior Canadian Rangers. Investments were made in: rationalizing and standardizing full-time organization and establishments, achieving efficiencies in summer programme transportation, providing fitness and sports activities at community-level, developing and delivering a training package for adult staff and volunteers, and growing the Junior Canadian Rangers Programme. A new set of Renewal metrics was developed to monitor progress of this initiative moving forward and will be instrumental for updating the Performance Measurement Framework for the Youth Program.

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

382,286,293

382,286,293

388,622,170

453,694,400

71,408,106

Note: Due to rounding, figures may not add up to totals shown.

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

1,362

1,444

82

Civilian

305

275

(30)

TOTAL

1,667

1,719

52

Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.

Performance Results

Expected Results

Performance Indicators

   Targets     

Actual Results

The application of Defence capabilities and services reduces the risk to the safety, security and prosperity of Canada, and to the stability of foreign populations.

% of Defence Service Operations and Defence Services that successfully met their objectives.

90 - 100%

99%

 

 Welcoming Syrian Refugees to Canada

Master Corporal Sandra Eis holds an infant

Photo: Corporal Darcy Lefebvre, Canadian Forces Combat Camera.

Master Corporal Sandra Eis, Joint Task Force Forward medical technician, holds an infant during the medical screening portion of the Government of Canada’s Operations PROVISION in Beirut, Lebanon on December 9, 2015.

Helping Syrian refugees journey to Canada provided the Defence Team and its medical personnel with a tremendous opportunity to demonstrate its role in assisting international aid efforts. In total, 98 Canadian Forces Health Services 37 members deployed on Op PROVISION 38, coming from 18 units across the country, and representing 11 military occupations.

Program 3.0: Defence Ready Force Element Production

The Defence Ready Force Element Production Program produces and renews force elements on a continual basis for use in Defence Combat and Support Operations, as well as for the delivery of Defence Services and Contributions to Government, in order to increase the likelihood of success and decrease risk of failure in the defence of Canada and promotion of Canadian interests. Results are delivered by assembling force elements from the fundamental elements of Defence capability (i.e., military personnel, materiel and information systems, information, and, in some cases, real property), and integrating them through various training and certification programs so that they have the requisite amount of readiness in order to fulfill predefined roles within the operations for which they are destined.

The term readiness refers to the volume, endurance, responsiveness and capability attributes of force elements that are not employed. These attributes are used to determine the degree of risk that would be associated with assigning them to fulfill perspective role(s) within on-going or contingency operations. The force elements produced by the Defence Ready Force Elements Production Program are organized into portfolios according to the maritime, land, aerospace and special operations environments in which they operate. There are also portfolios for force elements that operate jointly across these domains and force elements that provide common support functions.  Across these portfolios, force elements are produced to meet readiness targets. These readiness targets ensure that production can be sustained over short- and medium-term time horizons; they also ensure the number of force elements available for employment in ongoing and contingency operations is in accordance with acceptable levels of operational risk.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Throughout 2015-16, the CAF remained fully prepared to undertake operations and exercises. The CAF continued to strengthen operational readiness to ensure it has the ability to deploy anywhere in the world at any given time.

In accordance with Force Posture and Readiness requirements, 95% of forces at high readiness occurrences were available to respond when demanded, 95% of defence force elements remained at the sustainment level and 100% of force elements completed required integration training. Overall, 92% of weighted force elements from all portfolios completed required readiness production milestones.

  • The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) continued to generate and sustain highly effective maritime force elements in accordance with the Managed Readiness Plan. Innovative concepts were implemented by the RCN, such as the Maritime Tactical Operations Group (MOTG). This new Enhanced Boarding Party has become tremendously valuable on deployments – a “made-in-Canada” solution to some of the challenges the RCN faces at sea. This outstanding program was developed in relatively short order and personnel have quickly proven their skill and abilities.
  • The Canadian Army (CA) is made up of Regular, Reserve, Ranger, and civilian personnel, who work together to provide Canada with a reliable and responsive range of military capabilities that deliver decisive land power in the achievement of Canadian defence objectives. Through its Managed Readiness Plan, the Army’s flexibility and depth ensures it can scale its forces across the full continuum of operations. Throughout FY 2015-16, the CA remained ready to defend Canada and North America and to contribute to International Peace and Security.
  • The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) continued to deliver effects along the six lines of operation described in the RCAF Campaign Plan. Progress was achieved with numerous initiatives associated with greater employment of simulation as a way to reduce training costs and to extend service life of major fleets. The RCAF Simulation Strategy 2025 39 outlines a comprehensive plan with short-, mid-, and long-term spectrums of activities to make the best use of current RCAF aircrew training systems and to execute a capital acquisition of simulators for CC149, CC150, and CC177 fleets. Exercise Virtual 15 40 was completed at the Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre in 8 Wing Trenton, Ontario; this is the first iteration of an annual developmental activity to advance distributed synthetic training. Additionally, advances to the CH146 Mission Rehearsal Tactics Trainers enabled greater operational readiness for 1 Wing.

National Defence participated in scheduled exercises and training activities to enhance the ability to operate as part of a multi-national force during operations, to mitigate threats, or deliver defence services.

  • In International and Domestic Interoperability Training, through participation on a number of allied exercises and through participation on expeditionary operations under the control of the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC), the Canadian Army continues to strengthen its international alliances, interoperability, and more broadly help to influence international partners’ views. Some examples of this training and operations are: Operation REASSURANCE Light Task Force, Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 41, Operation IMPACT and Operation UNIFIER.
  • National Defence executed a NATO JOINTEX which involved a Canadian-led multinational joint headquarters operating within simulated and live training environments under a NATO Joint Forces Command. Of note, for the first time, Canadian command at sea was exercised with great success from a post-Halifax Class Modernization frigate; HMCS Winnipeg. This exercise not only trained CAF personnel for employment within a multinational joint integrated task force headquarters but also incorporated a Canadian National Command Element into both the Command post exercise and live portions of the event. 
  • Exercise TRADEWINDS 42 is a multinational maritime security, ground security and interagency exercise led by the United States Southern Command. It focuses on countering transnational organized crime and practicing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in order to promote regional security cooperation. In 2015, the exercise was conducted in two phases in May and June and involved ships, aircraft and personnel from 19 nations and key regional organizations. CAF contribution consisted of:
    • HMCS Glace Bay training regional partners in areas such as firefighting, first aid, suspect vessel tracking and boarding procedures, and weapons usage;
    • a 15-member Fleet Diving Unit (Atlantic) team providing training to partner nations in individual and group diving tactics; and
    • 34 members from the Canadian Army, primarily from 2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment (2 RCR), some co-leading training in live-fire ranges, simulated urban operations training and command and control mentorship in a joint operational headquarters, and others participating in jungle warfare training led by the Belize Defence Force.
  • The Joint Counter Explosive Threat Task Force worked with Global Affairs Canada (GAC) and other departments to rapidly and effectively meet Global Engagement Strategy objectives. Activities included support to GAC’s Counter Terrorism Section by generating a Joint Mobile Training Team to the Philippines to train post-blast investigation, and the planning and execution of a three year training effort.

For more information on military exercises 43, consult the National Defence website.

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars) 

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

3,102,147,905

3,102,147,905

3,245,508,752

3,401,386,557

299,238,652

Note: Due to rouding, figures may not add up to totals shown

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

26,400

25,735

(665)

Civilian

2,116

1,507

(609)

TOTAL

28,516

27,242

(1,274)

Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.

Performance Results 

Expected Results

Performance Indicators

   Targets  

Actual Results

There exists a sufficient and balanced portfolio of operationally ready force elements that can participate in Defence Operations and deliver Defence services.

% of occurrences that Forces at High Readiness were available to respond when demanded, as tasked in FP&R.

70 - 100%

95%

 

JOINTEX 15/Phase III (LIVEX), Canada’s participation in TRIDENT JUNCTURE 15, the largest NATO exercise since 2002

HNLMS TROMP and Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) ATHABASKAN conduct a Replenishment at Sea (RAS) with ESPS CANTABRIA , during Exercise JOINTEX

Photo: LS Peter Frew, Formation Imaging Services Halifax

26 October 2015 – HNLMS TROMP (left) and Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) ATHABASKAN (3rd from left) conduct a Replenishment at Sea (RAS) with ESPS CANTABRIA (2nd from left), during Exercise JOINTEX as part of NATO’s Trident Juncture 15. The NRP VASCO DA GAMA (right) sails across in the background.   

JOINTEX is a biennial activity and a keystone Canadian Armed Forces force posture and readiness activity to evaluate and confirm operational mission preparedness. It tests our ability to deploy the command and control, intelligence, sustainment and force protection that goes with any commitment to international operations. The aim of JOINTEX 15 was to advance CAF mission preparedness by practicing the conduct of joint, combined and integrated expeditionary operations, developing concepts and procedures, and providing a focus for force development. The exercise provided an opportunity to exercise CAF’s ability to command Canadian and international forces, and prepare for the most challenging international contingency operations, and deploy formations, units and elements required to support and augment Alliance integration and interoperability capabilities.

For this iteration of JOINTEX, the CAF maximized training value by linking JOINTEX 15 with NATO’s flagship exercise TRIDENT JUNCTURE 15 – which is NATO’s largest exercise in recent history, with over 36,000 troops from more than 30 nations. Approximately 1650 CAF members participated in TRIDENT JUNCTURE 15. TRIDENT JUNCTURE 15 was led by NATO Joint Force Command Brunssum, in the Netherlands. By its scale, its advanced scenario, exercise venues, and alliance command and control, TRIDENT JUNCTURE 15 allowed the CAF to synchronize a nationwide training scenario to advance interoperability with other nations as well as integration among the environmental commands: the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Joint Operations Command and Canadian Special Operations Forces Command.

Program 4.0: Defence Capability Element Production

The Defence Capability Elements Production Program aims to sustain Defence by producing and maintaining portfolios of the fundamental Defence capability elements, so they are continuously available in the appropriate quantity, combination and condition to sustain the chain of Defence programs, from the Defence Capability Development and Research Program through to the Defence Ready Force Elements Production Program. These programs collectively give Defence the ability to conduct Defence Combat and Support Operations, as well as to deliver Defence Services and Contributions to Government. The primary elements of Defence capability are military personnel, materiel and information systems, information, and real property.  A fundamental focus of the Defence Capability Elements Production Program is to provide an adequate and sustained supply of individual military personnel and materiel in the near-term and over long-term time horizons so that they can be integrated to produce force elements within the Defence Ready Force Element Production Program. 

Results are achieved through subordinate programs, each of which focuses on a separate portfolio: military personnel and organization; materiel; real property; or information systems. A lifecycle approach is used to manage each portfolio. The essential aspects of the lifecycle approach are sub-sub-programs that provide the principle lifecycle functions: introduction into service; maintenance, upgrade and supply; release from service; portfolio management; and overarching co-ordination and control. The character of activity that occurs within each of these primary functions depends on the portfolio of entities being produced and therefore the desegregation of the lifecycle functions into sub-sub-programs is unique to each portfolio. The authority for this program is derived from the National Defence Act.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Regular Force Portfolio Management

A minor reorganization in the Personnel Management System was effected to better align several functions and coordinate activities to address outstanding issues. National Defence achieved several improvements to the CAF career management process including the use of videoconferencing to reduce Temporary Duty costs and the introduction of a more efficient model for military moves which increased the accuracy of cost forecasts (within 1.5% of planned funding) and resulted in the more timely release of postings messages, and the simplification of Personnel Evaluation Reports in order to provide more relevant assessments with less front-line effort.

Recruitment

Internal recruiting process improvements were achieved with a view to ensuring the CAF has the capacity to meet and sustain its recruiting targets.

  • Recruiting operations were centralized, with decentralized execution, better geographic coverage through internet applications, quicker response times from recruiters to applicants, improved synchronization within the organization in managing personnel awaiting training, and recruiting Reserve Force personnel; and
  • The CF Recruiting Information System 2, launched in January 2015, greatly enabled better file management, thereby improving effectiveness and efficiency.

An increase in both the recruiting capacity and retention for the Regular and Reserve Force is necessary to achieve authorized manning levels as not all environmental or occupation specific requirements were met.  National Defence had challenges meeting the Strategic Intake Plan by occupation requirements over the past several years particularly in a number of technical and health related occupations. To improve recruiting capability, National Defence developed and implemented an annual CAF Recruitment Advertising Campaign which included the Excellence in Operations and the Priority Occupations campaigns. National Defence also developed and delivered marketing support for recruitment, including marketing products, partnerships, Web and social media content. The development of a Retention Strategic Initiating Directive commenced with the intent to produce a CAF Retention Strategy by summer 2017

The CAF Establishment Study continued to advance in order to determine the required size and composition of the Regular Force Trained Effective Establishment. The third phase of the study will assess military occupational structure identification. Furthermore, National Defence launched the follow-on Integrated Human Resources project to investigate capabilities and options to optimize the various components of the Defence Team, including Regular Force, Reserve Force and civilian workforces.

Transition and Release

National Defence remained committed to delivering relevant programs and services to meet the needs of military personnel and help them transition into civilian life. Overall, releasing military personnel remained satisfied with the information they receive regarding transition programs (86%) and agreed that release information is received in a timely manner (84%). Data collection and validation of the applicability and timeliness of services was greatly improved at bases. Over 90% of bases used the national registration and standardized feedback forms for Second Career Assistance Network and Career Transition workshops.

To further improve support to the ill and injured, as well as all transitioning CAF members, several ongoing initiatives commenced in response to the Ombudsman letter that include:

  • Enhanced Transition Services, a joint initiative by CAF and VAC where VAC Case managers engage with medically releasing CAF members early in the pre-release stage to ensure a more streamlined transition; and
  • CAF in-service enhanced career transition services, including partnerships with external agencies to improve career transition.

Training and Education

Professional development and specialty occupation training services were provided to ensure military personnel have the requisite knowledge and skills for employment in the CAF and make them employable in their respective occupations. The initiative to modernize Individual Training and Education made some progress beyond the major enhancements to the Defence Learning Network and Learning Support Centres that were achieved last year.

  • The Military Personnel Command Learning Support Centre reached Initial Operational Capability in November 2015 and reduced training length for designated training authorities;
  • Training and development was supported through the completion of the Canadian Armed Forces Competency Dictionary, the modernization of selection model tools, and the development of a national Centre of Excellence; and
  • The Training Document Management System was introduced, reducing duplication and significantly increasing effectiveness in qualification standards and training package development across the CAF.

Morale and Well-being

Overall, the CAF continued to meet its quality of life obligations to members.

A new funding model for the Military Family Services Program was trialed to significant success, reducing administrative processes by 75%. New programming specific to targeted audiences was implemented, including medically releasing members, families and caregivers with a focus on mental health, children with special needs and improving access to medical care.

A holistic review of the treatment of the ill and injured was conducted and resulted in the Report on the Chief of Defence Staff Directed Review of Care for the ill and Injured and Transitioning being published in 2015. The report highlighted areas that were working well, and areas that needed improvement to enhance the support to CAF ill and injured personnel. During the past year, several of the recommendations were implemented such as: relocating ill and injured members who were not collocated with their families; initiating the procurement for additional vehicles for the Integrated Personnel Support Centres (IPSCs) in order to increase the transportation capability at each base and wing for supporting ill and injured CAF members getting to and from medical appointments; and making a significant effort to staff the Regular Force, Reserve Force and civilian positions at the IPSCs.

In response to the review, the CDS directed a complete review of the Joint Personnel Support Unit command and control structure. The past year was spent planning for the implementation of several significant changes including improved staffing levels in the 24 IPSCs and reinforcing the leadership structure by improving the linkages of the Environmental Commands to increase overall accountability and better-enable the provision of services to CAF members. 

Health Care

As a core mandate of the CAF, the physical and psychological health care needs of CAF personnel are met by providing a full spectrum of safe, high quality health services in-garrison and during operations. Programs such as, but not limited to, prevention, promotion, protection, treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration are run by a health care system that continuously strives to meet or exceed Canadian standards.

  • The Surgeon General’s Integrated Health Strategy was further developed to enhance a patient-centred health system with well-integrated health-related programs and services that maximize operational readiness and lifelong health.
  • A joint literature research project with Canadian Forces Health Services and the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health was launched with a goal of establishing system-wide efficiencies and clinical practice guidelines for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
  • Analysis of the 2013 Mental Health survey continued and has led to 27 presentations, posters, and symposia presented at scientific meetings, prepared by more than 35 co-authors from more than 10 different research organizations. During 2015-16, seven peer-reviewed articles using the 2013 CF Mental Health Survey data were published.
  • In December 2015, the CFHIS Mental Health minor project was implemented ahead of schedule and under budget. The project permits direct entry of mental health notes into the electronic health record, thereby improving communication with other members of the health care team and the efficacy of mental health service delivery to CAF members.
  • The Biological Warfare Threat Medical Countermeasures project, through participation in the Medical Countermeasures Consortium, facilitated the further development of treatments, diagnostics and vaccines against several biological threats including Ebola, anthrax, plague and smallpox.
  • Policy revision and creation was conducted in various areas including nursing, physician assistant practice and governance, pharmacy, access to care provision of clinical services and patient safety to address clinical roles and enhance care delivery to reduce wait times, improve access and enhance efficiency.

Military Personnel and Organizational Lifecycle

The Military Personnel Management Capability Transformation initiative continued to progress but under revised timelines. The roll-out of GUARDIAN Release 1 replacing the in-service Human Resources system with technology dating from the late 1990s is now planned for early in FY 2017-18. The initiative is widely recognized as an important effort to bring the military Human Resources management and pay system up to modern industry and pan-Government standards.

Investing in our future

In order to meet the new and emerging challenges in the years to come, the Canadian Armed Forces must be properly equipped with the resources they will need. The Defence Policy Review will inform future policy direction for National Defence and the appropriate investment for Canada’s military to deliver results for Canadians.

National Defence advanced a number of initiatives focused on process improvement to support timely delivery, cost effectiveness and future success in our investments in equipment, infrastructure and technology.

Materiel Lifecycle

National Defence continued to support Public Services and Procurement Canada in the implementation of the Defence Procurement Strategy (DPS) to ensure defence procurement delivers the right equipment to the CAF, creates economic opportunities and jobs in Canada, and streamlines the defence procurement process. The Minister of National Defence received an increase in goods contracting authority from the Minister of Public Services and Procurement as a result of a DND business case and developed contracting performance metrics. DND also included the Advisory Committee on Repair and Overhaul into the DPS governance structure to eliminate duplication and streamline the procurement process.

As part of the sustainment initiative, a sustainment business case analysis guide / report and process were collaboratively developed with private industry and other government departments to ensure improvements and efficiencies in how equipment in service is maintained, sustained, and costed. A principles-based, whole-of-government approach was also adopted that will align with the Defence Procurement Strategy to strengthen the governance of resultant contracting decisions.

The Department advanced several initiatives, including the full implementation of the Project Manager Competency Development Initiative, to develop a strong and capable workforce with the capacity to meet identified requirements and deliver the Materiel Acquisition and Support Program.

Workforce capacity and capability was identified as the top risk to acquiring and supporting Defence materiel. Extensive collaboration occurred in the Department to establish service level agreements to ensure that it builds human resources capacity and capability.

The Department developed training and a governance framework to increase the contracting authority limit to $400K and obtain an increase of up to $5M for specified authorities.

The Maintenance Execution initiative to seek to ensure that maintenance personnel are as productive as possible during their direct maintenance time continued to mature in the RCN, CA and RCAF. Following a thorough bottom up examination, each environment is poised, with stakeholder support, to implement a more effective approach to maintenance execution.

  • FY 2015-16 highlights include the National Shipbuilding Strategy in cooperation with Public Services and Procurement Canada, including:
    • Completion of the Joint Support Ship Initial Design Review, and significant subsequent work;
    • The start of construction of the first Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ship;
    • Advancing the Joint Support Ship/Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ship In-Service Support Contract Request for Proposal;
    • The Continuation of the HALIFAX Class Modernization Programme with the modernization of two frigates (bringing the total number to nine out of 12); and
    • Approval of the Canadian Surface Combatant Procurement Strategy and selection of bidders.

For detailed information on transformational and major capital projects, see Section IV: Supplementary Information – Status Report on Transformational and Major Crown Projects 44 and Status Report on Projects Operating with Specific Treasury Board Approval.45

Real Property

Defence's national real property management and service delivery was successfully consolidated under National Defence’s Assistant Deputy Minister Infrastructure and Environment Group, allowing Commanders of the RCN, CA, and RCAF to focus on their core business of force readiness, and facilitating the transformation of the infrastructure business model.

Efforts to streamline and consolidate infrastructure assets continue through the demolition and divestment of structures on bases and wings across Canada, as well as the divestment of their associated real property replacement costs. The Defence Portfolio 2030 (formerly the National Real Property Development Plan) was approved and released. This key strategic document lays the foundation for guiding future Defence Real Property development and life-cycle management in support of CAF operational requirements across Canada.

Spending allocated towards recapitalization of infrastructure did not meet its planned target for the fourth consecutive year.  The consolidation of real property management and service delivery, together with the initiation of transformation activities, will enable National Defence to more efficiently approve projects of lifecycle management to mitigate lower than targeted investment levels.

The environmental program achieved an 8.2% reduction to contaminated sites opening liability in FY 2015-16.  In addition, National Defence entered into energy performance contracts that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 30,000 tonnes and utility costs by an estimated $10-15M annually.

The Auditor General tabled his 2015 Fall Report in February 2016. One of the recommendations made was that Canadian Forces Housing Agency (CFHA) ensures its condition assessment information for housing units is entered and updated regularly to ensure it is accurate and available to inform decisions.  In response to this recommendation, CFHA successfully completed the roll-out of the condition assessment portion of the Housing Agency Information Management System to all its regional offices on 31 March 2016. As part of the roll-out, all housing condition data was transferred to the updated system in November 2015, and all regional offices received system training. The regional offices are presently able to enter data reflecting the condition of military housing, for example as a result of inspections and project work. Having up-to-date information on the condition of military housing will inform decision-making on modernization of housing and spending priorities.

IM/IT

An enterprise-level approach to IT Service Management - including consolidation of some 169 IT Service Delivery organizations to as few as 20 points of service across the country supported by a single enterprise toolset - is well underway. The National Service Management Centre achieved Initial Operational Capability over two stages in December 2015 and March 2016. Multiple governance and program management process changes were implemented and the Department is seeing the immediate benefits of a renewed IM/IT governance approach stemming from the strengthening of a Defence Chief Information Officer.

Specific achievements in FY 2015-16 were:

  • The completion of the Coastal Marine Security Operation Centre (MSOC) Project, resulting in the staffing and equipment of two Coastal MSOCs, one on the Atlantic coast and one on the Pacific coast, with the personnel, state-of-the-art commercial off-the-shelf information technology, integrated information management/information technology, and physical infrastructure to allow them to carry out their marine security mission;
  • The initiation of a Program Charter and program milestones for a Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Engineering and Architecture Program;
  • The continued delivery of security enhancements resulting in better protection of departmental systems and networks; and
  • The delivery of an enterprise Business Intelligence capability in support of Op HONOUR, supporting the elimination of harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour within the CAF.

National Defence advanced the delivery of space systems with a supporting IM/IT environment in all domains (ISR, SATCOM & NAVWAR) in collaboration with other government departments and Shared Services Canada and in line with the Defence Space 5 Year Roadmap. Regular engagements continue with all stakeholders including other government departments and allies. Given the large number of stakeholders and different equities at stake, Shared Services Canada involvement is key to shaping the IM/IT environment.

Security, Protection, Justice and Safety

Prevention measures increased in all areas; including development of sound health and safety policies, procedures and practices and collaboration between Occupational Health and Safety domains. Areas of improvement include data integrity for lost workday data, providing up-to-date health and safety training.

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

13,336,464,765

13,336,464,765

13,933,619,105

12,577,878,081

(758,586,684)

Note: Due to rounding, figures may not add up to totals shown.

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

32,954

31,712

(1,242)

Civilian

17,000

15,624

(1,376)

TOTAL

49,954

47,336

(2,618)

Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.

Performance Results

Expected Results

Performance Indicators

   Targets  

Actual Results

Suitable Defence capability elements are available in a mix and condition that enables Defence to be prepared for and execute operations.

% of Defence capability elements that are suitable to Defence needs.

90 - 100%

83%

 

Addressing Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces

General Jonathan Vance, Chief of the Defence Staff

Photo: Corporal Darcy Lefebvre, Canadian Forces Combat Camera.

 “We have only just begun this mission. Last year we acknowledged inappropriate sexual behaviour is a significant problem in our organization. Today’s report shows we are beginning to see early progress. But we are still far from where we need to be. We must focus and sustain our efforts to ensure we instill the cultural change necessary to provide a healthy environment for all members.” 

General Jonathan Vance, Chief of the Defence Staff 

When General Jonathan Vance became the Chief of the Defence Staff in July 2015, he outlined that harmful and inappropriate sexual behavior within the Canadian Armed Forces is unacceptable and eliminating it decisively and permanently would be one of his top priorities. In August, the CDS launched Operation HONOUR as the over-arching effort through which the CAF would address this problem within its ranks. A major component of Operation HONOUR is implementing the 10 recommendations of the External Review Authority, former Supreme Court Justice Mme. Marie Deschamps. While these constitute the brunt of the effort, the operation is not limited to the recommendations and will cover additional ground.

Central to Operation HONOUR is support to victims of harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour. The Sexual Misconduct Response Centre opened in September 2015 to provide professional and confidential support to CAF members who have experienced or been affected by harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour by helping them make informed choices on available options and services, as well as facilitating access (when requested) to resources and services to meet their individual needs. This type of dedicated Centre for victims of harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour is a first for the CAF and full operational capacity is expected in 2017. The CAF continues to advance Operation HONOUR and implement the Deschamps report recommendations along four major lines of effort –  Understand, Respond, Support and Prevent.  In February 2016, the CAF’s first progress report was released. The report outlined the progress achieved by the CAF in implementing the Operation HONOUR directive and the 10 External Review recommendations.

Program 5.0: Defence Capability Development and Research

The Defence Capability Development and Research Program seeks to provide the analytical basis and knowledge to anticipate foreseeable changes in the threat and security environment and to determine the associated demand for Defence capabilities across near- and long-term time horizons in order to enable evidence-based strategic decisions that align the introduction, modification and divestment of Defence capabilities and guide the application of existing capabilities with an acceptable levels of risk. Results are achieved by: establishing and monitoring the fulfillment of near-term targets for readying force elements and conducting Defence operations; identifying lessons from past operations; assessing defence and security trends; developing and integrating new knowledge and systems/methods for conducting operations; developing approaches and conducting Defence capability analyses at strategic, operational and tactical levels; present to future capability assessments; designing and assessing defence alternatives; providing Defence capability oversight and expertise; and Defence capability use planning for sustainable Defence capabilities in future time horizons. As such, this Program sustains Defence by providing key products and services to the Defence Capability Elements Production Program, the Defence Ready Force Element Production Program and parts of the Defence Combat and Support Operations, and Defence Services and Contributions to Government programs. This Program also directly enables the management and oversight of Defence as a whole.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

National Defence successfully met the requirements for Defence stakeholders to be aware of risks pertaining to the introduction, preparation, application, modification and divestment of Defence capabilities in both the near- and long-term horizons.

  • The Defence space program continues to deliver space capabilities aligned with future DND and CAF requirements. Consideration has also been given to developing defence space capabilities capable of making substantial contribution to combined space operations.
  • National Defence worked with allies under The Technology Cooperation Program to improve automated detection and mitigation of threats to defence and security networks.
  • National Defence has taken an active role in the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR) process, through project data inputs provided by capability components for CIPPR refresh (Cycle 2), as well as capability component input regrading new and revised information on capital equipment projects as outlined in the Defence Acquisition Guide (DAG).
  • The RCN developed an “Experimental Ship” concept to test out innovations in warship deployment, crew size, technology, and sustainment onboard HMCS Montréal.
  • Capability Based Planning (CBP) scenarios were assessed and work is progressing to complete the Final Report in 2016.  It is anticipated that Force Capability Guidance will be issued in 2017 per the broad CBP plan. CIPPR has initially been approved to prioritize capital funding, to be amended as required based on the variability of forecast funding.
  • Research and development improvements have been implemented to advance force development, generation, readiness and employment in support of CAF operations. National Defence has:
    • Initiated the All Domain Situational Awareness initiative to inform decisions on future CAF capabilities and to deliver advice on the development of options for enhanced domain awareness of approaches to Canada;
    • Implemented the Strategic Management Readiness tool;
    • Provided advice and analysis to support the definition of requirements for new warships under the National Shipbuilding Strategy and the RCN major and minor capital projects for improved capabilities related to survivability of naval platforms;
    • Completed the CAF Competency Dictionary which supports CAF training and development, the modernization of CAF selection model tools, and development of a national Centre of Excellence to support CAF Individual Training and Education modernization;
    • Completed the Coalition Attack Guidance Experiments to support the CDS Joint Targeting directive; and
    • Completed the Emerging Operational Domains - Arctic Project by developing a remotely controlled unattended Arctic maritime surveillance capability demonstrator showing the persistent detection and tracking of cooperative and non-cooperative maritime air, surface and subsurface contacts over a range of weather conditions at a recognized Arctic choke point.
  • Strong progress was achieved this year for the CAF Operational Force Posture and Readiness (CAF FP&R) initiative to develop a more effective means of managing force posture. The third annual FP&R Directive was released in June 2015 and provided a CAF-wide framework for readiness that is aligned to the mandated missions of the Canadian defence policy and the current Programme Alignment Architecture. The Strategic Managed Readiness Tool (SMaRT) that provides a uniform mechanism for reporting readiness status against key defence policy tasks was completed and rolled out on 1 April 2015, with the first full data collection occurring in October 2015. A third critical element of the initiative -- a means of cost-capturing FP& R output - is almost complete and aims to finalize the cost-capturing implementation process with a first trial in June 2017. However, due to the introduction of the new Treasury Board Policy on Results and the transition of the Program Alignment Architecture to a Departmental Results Framework, the FP&R cost-capturing effort will be delayed by one year to late 2018. In the interim, FP&R implementation will be refined once the Defence Policy Review is completed to ensure that direction remains aligned with assigned tasks

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

373,537,801

373,537,801

384,217,147

424,789,408

51,251,607

 Note: Due to rounding, figures may not add up to totals shown.

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

816

671

(145)

Civilian

887

1,394

507

TOTAL

1,703

2,065

362

 Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.

Performance Results

Expected Results

Performance Indicators

   Targets    

Actual Results

Defence stakeholders are aware of risks pertaining to the introduction, preparation, application, modification and divestment of Defence capabilities in both the near- and long-term horizons.

% score on the Defence Capability Development and Research Evaluation Index.

81 -100%

85%

 

Integrating gender perspectives for enhanced operational effectiveness

Captain Zack Alber

Captain Zack Alber, a civilian-military cooperation officer attached to the Disaster Assistance Response Team, discusses issues with the residents of an Internationally Displaced Persons camp during a reconnaissance patrol in Bhaktapur, Nepal as part of the Government of Canada’s earthquake relief efforts on May 3, 2015.

The Canadian Armed Forces is taking steps to ensure that gender perspectives are included among the key considerations 46 whenever it deploys on operations throughout the world. Armed conflict, natural disasters and humanitarian crises affect men, women, boys and girls in different ways. Incorporating gender perspectives into the planning, execution and evaluation of operations will increase effectiveness and enhance the understanding of the challenges faced by populations in these areas. This will also support broader national and international 47 initiatives related to Women, Peace and Security. In January 2016, the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Jonathan Vance, issued formal direction 48 outlining the continued steps required to fully integrate gender perspectives into CAF operations.

Program 6.0: Internal Services

Internal Services are groups of related activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of programs and other corporate obligations of an organization. Internal services include only those activities and resources that apply across an organization, and not those provided to a specific program. The groups of activities are Management and Oversight Services; Communications Services; Legal Services; Human Resources Management Services; Financial Management Services; Information Management Services; Information Technology Services; Real Property Services; Materiel Services; and Acquisition Services.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Management and Oversight

  • The Defence Renewal Charter and Plan, developed in 2013, identifies strategic clarity as one area for improvement with regard to organizational health. Three interrelated initiatives supporting enhanced strategic clarity were developed and consist of initiative 7.1, enhanced understanding of strategic intent; 7.2, defence governance review; and 7.3, the development of a change alignment program.
  • The purpose of Defence Renewal initiative 7.2 is to renew top-level governance structures and processes to enable more effective and efficient decision-making at Defence. This initiative was implemented using a phased approach consisting of:
    • Phase 1 – Modernizing Defence accountabilities
    • Phase 2 – Improving Governance committee structures; and
    • Phase 3 – Enable effective business practices
  • As part of Defence Renewal initiative 8.3, Policy and Procedure Continuous Improvement, Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAODs) and the cancellation of Canadian Forces Administrative Orders (CFAOs) advanced. Defence completed a review of 54 out of 254 DAODs and 64 of 264 CFAOs were cancelled. A review schedule was established for the next two years in order to complete the initiative. The policy framework DAOD 1000 series was aligned with Defence Renewal initiative 7.2, Accountabilities, Responsibilities and Authorities (ARAs). As of August 1, 2015, the electronic DAODs were implemented as the official version, which not only provides more ease of access but also will save the cost of paper copy distribution. Defence will improve tracking of in-year progress in order to better identify and address potential delays.
  • National Defence completed a coordinated cyclical Defence-wide review of all chapters of National Defence Security Orders and Directives to ensure the directives are aligned with the current threat environment.

Communications

National Defence made significant progress on its contribution to the Web Renewal Initiative, the government-wide effort to develop a single website for the Government of Canada so visitors can easily find information and services they are seeking. In 2015-16, National Defence contributed:

  • More than 20 new topic pages to the National Security and Defence theme on Canada.ca; and
  • More than 40 redesigned pages to the forces.gc.ca site to ensure the content and design aligns with Treasury Board specifications and to prepare for the migration to Canada.ca.

National Defence also increased its efforts to profile key CAF exercises through national news releases, facilitation of media visits, social media, imagery, and the launch of a new web page featuring exercises.

In the fourth quarter of this reporting period, the Government of Canada re-confirmed its commitment to a Defence Policy Review in 2016 that would be supported by proactive communications and include robust engagement with Canadians, allies, and other stakeholders.

Human Resources Management

National Defence’s Civilian Human Resources Group is constantly striving to deliver high-quality services in an effective and efficient manner. This year, they have taken the first steps towards implementing Next Generation HR, which is a series of business transformation initiatives that aim to elevate the group’s strategic role within the Defence Team. Milestones to date include the following:

  • Adopted the Public Service Commission’s approach, A New Direction in Staffing, to streamline the Department’s staffing processes;
  • Developed and implemented a series of Service Standards to successfully support Defence priorities and business decisions;
  • Launched a suite of new IT tools for civilian human resources management to improve DND’s civilian HR service delivery model;
  • Established a civilian HR governance committee that focuses on programmatic management of HR;
  • Streamlined the strategic human resources planning process;
  • Developed a department-wide civilian Exit Survey to collect data that will provide the Defence Team with a better understanding of its workforce and fulfill the Department’s objective of building an agile, adaptable and high-performing workforce;
  • Launched a Learning Strategy, designed to strengthen the organization’s knowledge and competencies in order to meet current and future business requirements. This strategy provides guidance, direction and tools to help leverage the various learning opportunities (e.g. classroom, online, informal) and institutionalize the requirement for continuous learning for all employees; and
  • Supported senior management through the adoption of the Executive Community Management framework in order to harness the full potential of our current EX cadre and situate National Defence as an “Employer of Choice” through talent acquisition activities.

Each of these initiatives enables the Department to build a strong and high-performing Defence Team for today and tomorrow. 

Financial Management

National Defence has been working with the Department of Finance and the Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) to improve long-term budgeting and in-year budget monitoring. National Defence significantly reduced the overall lapse of funds as compared to previous years. Efficient and effective planning and expenditure management contribute to ensuring the Canadian Armed Forces has the equipment needed to conduct its missions.

Highlights of key activities include:

  • Financial Operations:
    • Advanced the Policy on Internal Controls by implementing a three year plan to achieve compliance;
    • Renewed the Travel, Hospitality, Conference and Events Expenditures framework;
    • Worked with TBS to remove pension liability from the Financial Statement;
  • Strategic Finances:
    • Completed a talent management framework;
    • Updated the ministerial submission processes with the aim to achieve effectiveness and reviewed the investment space incorporating every investment decision;
    • Retrospectively validated costs of the Investment Plan 2014 using more sophisticated methodologies which will better inform the long term planning of Defence Policy Review and inform the development of Investment Plan 2017; 
  • Finance Management:
    • Developed the plan to implement a new costing capability; and
    • Conducted a comprehensive review of DND funding methodology. This includes a process developed in consultation with central agencies to inform Budget 2016 planning to minimize potential lapse.

Information Management/ Information Technology

National Defence engaged in a multi-year effort to build an IM/IT Program. To date, the Department has:

  • Approved the Open Government Implementation Plan received departmental approval;
  • Began establishing an Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA) to standardize the structure to retain, manage, share and retrieve information resources of business value across DND and the CAF;
  • Prepared for the Carling Campus move by digitizing physical records, establishing a service model for Orderly Rooms, and preparing GCDOCS;
  • Completed the Business Intelligence (BI) consolidation study based on the existing BI solution within its enterprise management application. Based on the results, a new BI/Analytics Strategy has been developed towards an enterprise BI capability that will increase agility, add self-services and reduce complexity;  
  • Continued to monitor, review and revise its IT Security policy, standards and guidelines to ensure it remains effective and relevant to protecting departmental IM/IT; and
  • Continued to contribute to Government of Canada IT Modernization Priorities.

2015-16 Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)

Main Estimates

Planned Spending

Total Authorities Available for Use

Actual Spending (authorities used)

Difference

(actual minus planned)

453,116,285

453,116,285

467,857,112

448,245,658

(4,870,626)

Note: Due to rounding, figures may not add up to totals shown. 

2015-16 Human Resources (FTEs)

 

Planned

Actual

Difference

(actual minus planned)

Military – Regular Force

521

532

11

Civilian

3,486

2,666

(820)

TOTAL

4,007

3,198

(809)

Note: Due to rounding, the FTE count at the Sub-Program and the Sub-Sub-Program levels may not add up to totals shown.