External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces

Marie Deschamps, C.C. Ad.E.

External Review Authority

March 27, 2015

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1  Terminology

2. Scope and Mandate of the Review

2.1  ERA’s Mandate

2.2  Fact-Finding Process

2.3  Confidentiality in the Consultation Process

2.4  Documentary Review

3.  Background to the Review

4.  Culture of the CAF

4.1  Military Ethos

4.2  CAF Culture On the Ground From the Perspective of the ERA’s Mandate

   4.2.1   Organizational Culture

   4.2.2   Differences Between Naval, Land and Air Forces, Colleges and Reserve Units

   4.2.3   Differences Between Ranks

   4.2.4   Integration of Women into the CAF

4.3  Risk Factors

4.4  Changing the Culture: An Issue for Leaders

   4.4.1   Role of Leaders in Changing the Culture

   4.4.2   Proactive Leadership

Recommendation No. 1

Recommendation No. 2

5. Under-Reporting

5.1  Impact on Career Progression

5.2  Lack of Confidentiality

5.3  Lack of Trust in the Chain of Command

5.4  Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 3

Recommendation No. 4

6. Definitions

6.1  Sexual Harassment

6.2  Fraternization and Adverse Personal Relationships

6.3  Sexual Misconduct

   6.3.1   Using Plain Language

   6.3.2   Concept of Consent

   6.3.3   Consent and the Consumption of Alcohol

   6.3.4   Consent and Imbalances of Power

6.4   Single Policy

6.5   Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 5

Recommendation No. 6

7.  Processes and Procedures

7.1  Sexual Harassment

   7.1.1  Current Practices

   7.1.2   Lowest-level Resolution

   7.1.3   “Open-Door Policy”

   7.1.4   Challenges with Using ADR

   7.1.5   Other Problems

   7.1.6   Collection of Data

7.2  Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 7

7.3  Sexual Assault

   7.3.1  Current Practices

   7.3.2  Treatment of Victims

   7.3.3  Data Collection

7.4  Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 8

8. Programs and External Resources

8.1 Chaplains, Nurses, Social Workers and Physicians

   8.1.1   Chaplains

   8.1.2   Nurses and Social Workers

   8.1.3   Physicians

8.2  Other Victim Support Services

8.3  External Resources

8.4  Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 9

9. Training

9.1  Policies

9.2  Current Practices

9.3  Avenues for Improvement

Recommendation No. 10

10. Conclusion

APPENDIX A - Example of a message sent to members before a visit

APPENDIX B – List of Acronyms