Operation HAMLET is the Canadian Armed Forces’ participation in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is commonly known by its French name, Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti, or the acronym MINUSTAH.
Operation HAMLET is the military component of a Canadian whole-of-government engagement with Haiti that also includes:
- the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada;
- the Correctional Service of Canada; and
- the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Task Force Port-au-Prince
Task Force Port-au-Prince is the team deployed on Operation HAMLET. It comprises five staff officers serving in senior appointments at MINUSTAH’s military headquarters. The Task Force Commander serves as Chief of Staff to the MINUSTAH Force Commander.
The initial rotation of Task Force Port-au-Prince consisted of two staff officers who deployed from Canada on 22 May 2004 to join MINUSTAH Headquarters at its stand-up. The task force grew to three in 2005, and to five by 2010. For a year after the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010, Task Force Port-au-Prince was increased to 10 personnel, reverting to five during the summer of 2011. In June 2013, the CAF sent a platoon of 30 personnel to work with the Brazilian battalion (BRABAT) and four additional staff officers in support of MINUSTAH. In November 2013, the platoon, along with two staff officers, returned to Canada. On 26 May, 2015, two more staff officers returned to Canada, leaving the Task Force at its current manning of five.
In February 2004, a revolt against the government of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide began in Gonaïves on the south shore of Haiti’s northern peninsula. Armed opposition quickly spread through the north and, by the end of the month, threatened Port-au-Prince, the capital. On 29 February 2004, Mr. Aristide left the country and Boniface Alexandre, president of the Supreme Court of Haiti, was sworn in as an interim President of Haiti. Mr. Alexandre immediately made an urgent appeal to the United Nations for help in restoring peace and security.
MINUSTAH and its mandate
U.N. Security Council Resolution 1529 of 29 February 2004 authorized the deployment in Haiti of a Multinational Interim Force, led by the United States, for 90 days, and declared that a U.N. stabilization force would follow to facilitate the peaceful implementation of a constitutional process.
MINUSTAH took the field under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1542 of 30 April 2004 with a mandate to:
- Restore a secure and stable environment;
- Promote the political process;
- Strengthen the institutions and rule-of-law structures of the Government of Haiti; and
- Promote and protect human rights.
Over the years, this mandate has been expanded to add:
- Disarmament, reintegration and reconciliation of insurgents;
- Support to Haiti’s political and electoral processes;
- Reform of the judiciary, the police and the corrections system;
- Public safety and border security; and
- Assistance to reconstruction efforts after the earthquake of 12 January 2010.
At 16:53 local time on Tuesday, 12 January 2010, the southern peninsula of Haiti was convulsed by a massive earthquake with its epicentre near Port-au-Prince, followed by more than 50 severe aftershocks. The temblors destroyed buildings, roads and infrastructure throughout the region, but especially in the cities of Port-au-Prince, Léogâne and Jacmel. Government of Haiti estimates set the casualty toll at 316,000 lives lost, 300,000 people wounded, and 1 million left homeless. Of Haiti’s national population of about 9.7 million, almost 900,000 people lived in Port-au-Prince and its suburbs at the time of the earthquake.
The Government of Haiti appealed for help, and the international community immediately mounted an extensive long-term humanitarian operation in which the Canadian Armed Forces participated with a major joint task force deployed under Operation HESTIA.
The earthquake destroyed the MINUSTAH Headquarters building in Port-au-Prince, killing many members of the staff, including Hédi Annabi, the Chief of Mission, and Superintendent Paul Coates of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, then acting as the mission’s Police Commissioner. In all, 102 MINUSTAH personnel perished.
On 19 January 2010, to support the multinational recovery, reconstruction and stability effort, the U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 1908 to increase the military component of MINUSTAH from 6,940 to 8,940 all ranks — the size of an army corps — and its police contingent from 2,211 to 3,711 members. Five months later, Resolution 1927 (2010) increased the police component to 4,391 personnel to provide surge capacity and help the Haitian National Police meet the security challenges of the general and presidential elections scheduled for November 2010.
As of 31 May 2014, the total uniformed strength of MINUSTAH stands at 5,165 military personnel and 2,466 police. The mission also has 165 United Nations Volunteers and almost 1,600 international and local civilian employees.
The mission’s initial term of six months has been repeatedly extended. As well as Canada, the troop-contributing nations are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, the United States and Uruguay.
Canadian Armed Forces operations in Haiti
Since 1988, when a military coup ended the presidency of Leslie-François Manigat, Canada has been an active participant in international peace-support, stabilization and humanitarian operations in Haiti. During the same period, the Canadian Armed Forces have also planned four and launched three non-combatant evacuation operations related to unrest in Haiti.
From June to November 2013, a platoon of 34 personnel from the Canadian Army operated within a BRABAT to support the MINUSTAH mandate. Working with Brazilian personnel, the Canadian Armed Forces members assisted Haitian security and stability efforts.
The Canadian Armed Forces platoon was comprised of personnel from 5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in Valcartier. The platoon completed language and peace-support training in Brazil prior to this one-time deployment.
Their primary task was to conduct patrols of their area of responsibility and create a visible military presence in Haitian communities. They also provided a link between the United Nations and the local population and were able to assist in improving living conditions for Haitians. The fact that the platoon spoke French helped them gain the trust of the local population.
As part of the growing relationship between Canada and Brazil, the partnership served to increase military-to-military cooperation. It also supported the Government of Canada’s objective to build a more prosperous, secure and democratic hemisphere.
Participation in MINUSTAH
In March 2004, under Operation HALO, Task Force Haiti (comprising some 500 personnel, including a rifle company from the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment, six CH-146 Griffon tactical helicopters and a Civil-Military Cooperation detachment) deployed to serve with the Multinational Interim Force. Canada was asked to extend its commitment through the transition to the U.N. stabilization mission; consequently, on 25 June 2004, the soldiers and airmen of Task Force Haiti put on the U.N. blue beret in a ceremonial parade in Port-au-Prince. “Cease ops” came on 31 July 2004, when the first contingents of MINUSTAH troops were in place, and the main body of Task Force Haiti was back in Canada by 3 August 2004. The last member of Task Force Haiti’s rear party redeployed on 17 August 2004.
Peace-support and stabilization operations
- Operation HAMLET: United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), Since 22 May 2004
- Operation HALO:
- MINUSTAH, 25 June–2 August 2004
- Multinational Interim Force, 29 February–31 July 2004
- Operation COMPLIMENT: United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH), 1 January 1998–16 March 2000
- Operation CONSTABLE: United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH), 30 July–30 November 1997
- Operation STABLE: United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH), 1 October 1996–31 July 1997
- Operation STANDARD: UNSMIH, 28 June–30 September 1996
- Operation FORWARD ACTION, Multinational Force (MNF), 18 October 1993–29 September 1994
- Operation CAULDRON: United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), 1–15 October 1993
- Operation HERITAGE: United Nations Observer Group for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti (ONUVEH): 10 November 1990–7 February 1991
Non-combatant evacuation operations
- Operation PRINCIPAL: 28 February–3 March 2004
- Operation DIALOGUE, 1 September–12 October 1994
- Operation ESCORT: 1 November 1991–30 March 1992
- Operation BANDIT: 5 January–9 February 1988
- Operation HESTIA: 12 January–31 May 2010
- Operation HORATIO: World Food Programme, 10–27 September 2008
- Haiti 2004–4: 20–21 December 2004
- Haiti 2004–3: 28–29 October 2004
- Haiti 2004–2: 15–16 October 2004
- Haiti 2004–1: 22–28 September 2004
- Haiti 1999: 1 December 1999
- Haiti 1989: 1 January–30 October 1989
- Haiti 1963: 15–24 May 1963
Whole-of-government sustainment operations
- Operation HUMBLE: 24–31 May 2001
Government of Canada
- Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
- Canadian International Development Agency
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Correctional Service of Canada
- United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (United Nations)
- Mission des Nations unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti (MINUSTAH)
United Nations documents
- United Nations Charter / Chapter VII
- Security Council Resolution 1529 (2004) 29 February 2004
- Security Council Resolution 1542 (2004) 30 April 2004
- Security Council Resolution 1576 (2004) 29 November 2004
- Security Council Resolution 1601 (2005) 31 May 2005
- Security Council Resolution 1608 (2005) 22 June 2005
- Security Council Resolution 1658 (2006) 14 February 2006
- Security Council Resolution 1702 (2006) 15 August 2006
- Security Council Resolution 1743 (2007) 15 February 2007
- Security Council Resolution 1780 (2007) 15 October 2007
- Security Council Resolution 1840 (2008) 14 October 2008
- Security Council Resolution 1892 (2009) 13 October 2009
- Security Council Resolution 1908 (2010) 19 January 2010
- Security Council Resolution 1927 (2010) 4 June 2010
- Security Council Resolution 1944 (2010) 14 October 2010
- Security Council Resolution 2012 (2011) 14 October 2011
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