2015-2016 Annual Report

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Executive Summary……………………………………………………………….
  • Governance…………………………………………………………………………
  • Results…………………………………...……………………………………….....
  • ADM(RS) Audit…………………………………………………………………….
  • Conclusion…………………………………………….........................................
  • Annex A – Targeted Engagement Grants 2015/2016…………………………
  • Annex B – Expert Briefing Series 2015/2016…..............................................
  • Annex C – Management Action Plan……………………………………………

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Now in its fourth year, the Defence Engagement Programme (DEP) is a Treasury Board-mandated program with a two-fold mandate to:

         Support a strong Canadian knowledge base in contemporary security and defence issues that is relevant to Canadian defence policy and capable of informing, confirming, and challenging defence policy thinking among Department of National Defence (DND) and Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel; and

         Foster the next generation of security and defence scholars in the academic community. 

The DEP engages Canadian and international experts from across government, academia, the private sector, and other organizations on security and defence issues of interest to DND/CAF. 

To accomplish its mandate, the DEP provides Targeted Engagement Grants to academic institutions, think tanks, and other organizations to conduct research, draft papers, or put on conferences or other events related to the DEP’s annual priorities. For 2015/2016, the total funding available for the DEP’s Targeted Engagement Grants was $500,000 and there was unprecedented demand for DEP grants this year. Going forward, the DEP will continue to look for opportunities to raise awareness of its Targeted Engagement Grants in order to increase both the variety and quality of applications from across Canada and internationally as well.

The DEP also manages the Expert Briefing Series, which brings subject matter experts to DND to speak about key issues of interest to DND and the CAF. In 2015/2016, the DEP hosted 11 expert briefings. Over the past year, the DEP has sought to improve the reach of these briefings by creating video recordings of the events and then make them available on the DND intranet, as well as by broadcasting select events live by Video Teleconference (VTC). The DEP will continue these initiatives over the next year with the aim of expanding them. 

As an extension of the Expert Briefing Series, the DEP hosted its inaugural Executive Panel, which brought academics and other experts to Ottawa to discuss and debate key defence and security issues. The first Executive Panel was a one-day event that focused on Asia-Pacific and examined two key issues for the region: Great Power Dynamics and Canada’s Defence Nexus. 

The Directorate of Strategic Coordination and Outreach continues to seek new and innovative ways to improve the DEP. In March 2015, the DEP co-sponsored an academic symposium at NORAD-NORTHCOM in order to expose new Canadian academics to the depth and nuance of Canada-US defence relations. The event was very well received and the DEP will look at options for holding a similar event in the future. 

In compliance with the Treasury Board Secretariat Policy on Evaluation, the Assistant Deputy Minister Review Services (ADM(RS)) conducted an evaluation of the DEP. It was noted that the DEP was managed in an effective and responsible manner and facilitated access to external expertise that has informed, confirmed, and challenged the Defence Team’s policy thinking.

 

GOVERNANCE

The DEP is governed by the Defence Team Steering Committee (DTSC), which consists of representatives from Level One organizations from across DND and the CAF that have a direct interest in defence research and policy development. The DTSC meets on an annual basis to set the annual priorities for the DEP and take stock of lessons learned. The DEP Secretariat within the Directorate of Strategic Coordination and Outreach is responsible for managing and administering the DEP on a day-to-day basis.

Defence Team Engagement Priorities

The DEP’s annual priorities reflect key defence and security issues facing DND and the CAF. All grants must relate to these priorities, which are also used to identify topics and potential speakers for the Expert Briefing Series. 

In 2015/2016, the DEP focused on four priority areas:

The Global Security Environment

1. The Global Security Environment

It will be important to gain a better understanding of the key variables impacting the global strategic landscape, including the future defence role and posture of the United States, the complex cultural dynamics that underpin conflicts in key regions of the world, and the future of global governance and international institutions. It will also be important to assess how threats that have domestic and international components – such as terrorism – could impact Canada’s approach to national security and defence, including in a Whole-of-Government context.

 

For Fiscal Year 2015/2016, areas of interest could include but are not limited to:

 

·         What will be the evolving role and posture of the United States within the continental and global defence environments in a resource-limited context, and what will be the implications for Canada?

·         What will be the impact of Russia’s recent actions in Eastern Europe on European and international security?

·         How do complex cultural dynamics influence insurgencies, conflicts and/or trans-border crime in in the Middle East, the Sahel, South East Asia, and/or Latin America?

·         What impact do such trends as the emergence of new powers, shifts in relative economic weight and the rise of non-state actors have on the current system of global governance, and what does this mean for defence?

·         How could threats that have significant domestic and international components – such as terrorism and extremism – impact Canada’s approach to national security and defence, including Whole-of-Government cooperation?

·         What impact are the shifting interests and influence of key players such as China, India and Japan having on regional relations in Asia?

·         How should arms control regimes evolve and how can they be used to prevent and deter the tactical use of weapons of mass destruction?

Advanced Technology, New Domains and the Future of Warfare

2. Advanced Technology, New Domains and the Future of Warfare

 

As technological change continues to make the threats that all countries face more complex, it will be important to understand how defence policy and planning will be affected by changes in space and cyberspace, as well as advanced technologies that could impact the nature of warfare.

 

For Fiscal Year 2015/2016, areas of interest could include but are not limited to:

 

·         How could the global security environment change in the long-term as a result of technological and social development, and what types of new operations and activities could the Defence Team be expected to undertake – for example, in the area of Information Operations?

  • What types of capabilities and/or skills will the Defence Team require in order to maintain a strategic advantage in emerging domains, including space and cyberspace?
  • What are the implications of rapid strategic and technological developments for Canada’s international defence and security interests, including its alliances and partnerships?

·         What are the strategic, military, policy, legal, and ethical implications of new technologies as they apply to the Defence mission – including for example, remotely controlled and autonomous weapons, biometrics, and human performance enhancement?

·         How will different emerging technologies interact, and what will be the implications for defence?

·         How can DND/CAF enhance its science and technology, research and development, procurement, and other processes, so as to leverage the rapid pace of technological advancement in the private sector in an affordable and effective way?

Defence Planning in the Twenty-First Century

3. Defence Planning in the Twenty-First Century

 

 

  • The global strategic environment, fiscal context and advanced technology continue to shape how Canada and its allies manage their defence organizations and armed forces. It will be important to understand how modern defence organizations can best conduct strategic analysis and foresight, policy development, procurement, and military planning in a complex and constantly shifting strategic environment, including in areas such as hybrid or non-linear warfare. The relationship between economic interests and defence and security concerns will also be a key issue for examination. As countries around the world are developing models to achieve the long-term sustainability and affordability of their defence and security, the Defence Team is also interested in evolving international trends in defence reform, including best practices and lessons learned.
  • For Fiscal Year 2015/2016, areas of interest could include but are not limited to:
  •          What is the best way for defence organizations to conduct strategic analysis, foresight, policy development, force development, reform and procurement activities in a complex and constantly shifting strategic environment?
  •          How will hybrid or non-linear warfare impact future defence planning?
  • How should countries like Canada address the potential tension that exists between economic interests and defence and security concerns, such as the potential implications of Foreign Direct Investment for national security?
  •          What are the key lessons learned from other countries with respect to defence acquisition reform and the streamlining of defence procurement?
Canada’s Global Defence Engagement

4. Canada’s Global Defence Engagement

 

oing forward, the Canada-United States defence relationship will remain Canada’s most strategically significant partnership, and it will be important to understand the future role of DND/CAF with respect to continental and hemispheric security. Internationally, key issues of interest will include Canada’s ongoing commitment to NATO, as well as our bilateral and multilateral defence engagement in key regions of the world.

 

For Fiscal Year 2015/2016, areas of interest could include but are not limited to:

 

·         What are the perspectives for increased North American defence and security cooperation to jointly address continental, hemispheric, and global defence and security challenges, including through existing institutions?

·         What is the medium to long-term impact of the 2014 NATO Wales Summit – in particular, the decisions on the NATO Readiness Action Plan – on NATO and Canada’s role in the Alliance?

·         What is the best way for Canada to frame its strategic-level defence engagement with key players in Asia – including China and/or India – based on a better understanding of their defence activities in the Asia-Pacific region?

From a defence perspective, how can Canada help strengthen multilateral institutions in Latin America and/or the Asia-Pacific region, and which areas of its own defence expertise should Canada emphasize within these institutions?

Evaluation Methodology

Grant applications are evaluated by the DEP Secretariat, as well as subject matter experts from DND and the CAF representing the DTSC. The DEP also engages experts from other government departments and agencies, as required and depending on the subject matter of the application. 

The DEP Secretariat consolidates the evaluation results and each application is assigned a total score. Based on this evaluation, applications receive full, majority, or no funding. 

 

RESULTS

Targeted Engagement Grants

In FY 2015/2016, the DEP had a budget of $500,000 for its targeted engagement grants. This was disbursed over two rounds of funding in grants of up to $25,000 each. The application period for the first round was in May and the second was in October in order to better serve the community of grant applicants. We will continue to evaluate these timelines and streamline processes in order to improve on the delivery of our DEP program.

Overall, the DEP received a record number of grant applications that were of notably higher quality than previous years. Over the two rounds, the DEP received 44 grant applications, for a total amount requested of $835,332. This represented an increase of 53 percent over the previous year when the DEP received requests totaling $545,455 in funding. 

Following the vetting of applications, 30 proposals received full or partial funding. The grant projects supported academic research, conferences, and publications. A full summary of grant applications separated by round and the proportion of funding received is attached at Annex A. 

Expert Briefing Series

Experts Engaged in 2015/2016

The DEP Expert Briefing Series are organized around a presentation and generally include a roundtable discussion with Defence Team and other Government of Canada personnel. The DEP Secretariat may also include office calls or roundtables with senior DND/CAF leaders, as well as engagements at other departments and agencies, as appropriate. All Briefings take place under the Chatham House rule in order to encourage an open and free-flowing discussion.

The DEP continues to expand the Expert Briefing Series and organized 11 events in 2015/2016. The experts included academics and experts from think tanks, universities, and NGOs in Canada, the US, and Europe who briefed on key security and defence issues as articulated in the DEP’s annual priorities.

In 2014/2015, the DEP began filming select briefings as part of a pilot project in cooperation with the Defence Video Library. These videos were successful in expanding the reach and impact of the Expert Briefing Series and the DEP has continued this approach whenever possible. 

To date, the number of views that the Expert Briefing Series videos received on the internally available Defence Video Library are as follows:

         Adam Lajeunesse     1080  views

         Jacob Zenn               935    views

         David Kilcullen        2085  views

         Alex Wilner              913    views

The Expert Briefing Series continues to provide a good return on investment as they are increasingly attended by personnel at all levels from across DND/CAF and other government departments, from senior executives to directors and analysts.

Dr. David Kilcullen – Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Today’s Operational Context

Brian Finlay – Leveraging Industry to Address Cross-Border Security Threats

Dr. Jacob Parakilas – A Changing Security Environment: The Needed Response from NATO and its Member States

Paul Scharre – The Future of Defence: Autonomous Systems and Emerging Technologies

Jonathan Berkshire Miller – Japan’s Security and Defence Posture in East Asia: Evolution or Revolution?

Dr. Jon R. Lindsay – China, Cybersecurity, and Military Operations in the 21st Century and Cross Domain Deterrence in Theory and Practice

Linda Robinson – A Briefing on the Coalition Strategy to Counter the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria

Dr. Richard A. Matthew – Environmental Change, Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding

Jacob Zenn – New Competition, New Capabilities: A Primer on Violent Non-State Actors in Africa for 2016

Dr. Alex Wilner – Defeating and Deterring ISIS: Emerging Threats, Evolving Strategies

Dr. Stéfanie von Hlatky – The Relevance of Deterrence in an Age of Hybrid War: Can Canada and its Allies Adapt?

Regional Engagement

The DEP Secretariat continues to seek new and innovative ways to improve the DEP and deliver on its mandate. New for this year, the DEP co-sponsored and funded an academic symposium at NORAD-NORTHCOM in collaboration with the Royal Military College of Canada and NORAD-NORTHCOM. The purpose of the event was to expose newer Canadian academics to the depth and nuance of Canada-US defence relations. The DEP subsidized the participation of 16 academics at the event, which was also attended by DND/CAF and other Canadian government officials, US military personnel, and a few self-funded academics. The event was very well received and NORAD-NORTHCOM produced an after-action report on the event, which identified lessons learned for future academic symposiums.

ADM(RS) AUDIT

In compliance with the Treasury Board Secretariat Policy on Evaluation, ADM(RS) conducted an evaluation of the DEP between May and September 2015. The evaluation determined that DEP was managed in an effective and responsible manner and that the DEP has facilitated access to external expertise that has informed, confirmed, and challenged the Defence Team’s policy thinking. In addition, it noted that the program has filled a departmental need for independent analysis and discussion of Canadian security and defence policy issues and that it effectively supports the Defence Team.  The evaluation concluded that the DEP should continue and build on its successes.

ADM(RS) produced a number of key findings and recommendations for the DEP, all of which have been accepted and are being implemented as part of the Management Action Plan. See Annex C for further details.

CONCLUSION

The DEP continues to build on the successes of the previous years. Looking forward, the DEP will work to incorporate the lessons learned from 2015/2016 and implement the recommendations from the ADM(RS) audit. 

In particular, the DEP Secretariat is working to broaden awareness of the program in order to continue to improve both the quantity and the quality of grant applications. Over the past year, the DEP Secretariat participated in two international studies conferences, in order to engage with academics, graduate students, and other participants on the DEP’s mandate and objectives. The DEP Secretariat will continue similar outreach activities over the coming year with the goal of improving the quality and breadth of grant applications. In FY 2015/2016 the DEP was able to fully expend its funding envelope and the DEP Secretariat will look to replicate this success going forward. 

The DEP Secretariat is also beginning a review process to identify options to better meet the needs of DND, the CAF, Government of Canada, and external stakeholders. Just as the DEP built on the work of its predecessor, the Security and Defence Forum, so too can it evolve further to better meet the needs of the Defence Team and the external population it serves.

Further Information

Website

http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/training-paid-education/engagement-program.page  

Email address

DEP-PCD@forces.gc.ca   

Postal address

Defence Engagement Program ManagerAssistant Deputy Minister (Policy)National Defence Headquarters101 Colonel By Drive, 18 NTOttawa, OntarioK1A 0K2

Canada

ANNEX A – TARGETED ENGAGEMENT GRANTS 2014/2015

Summary of Applications

Round 1 – Applications Receiving Full Funding

Carleton University

November 2015 – Ottawa, Ontario

The Year Ahead: An International Security and Intelligence Outlook for 2016

Amount Received: $20,000

This one-day conference comprised five panels on the following topics: hotspots where instability and conflict might occur; the outlook for counter-terrorism and stabilization missions; the opportunities for conflict resolution through negotiation and civilian instruments; the intersection of security and the economy; and the US and the politics of international security.  The conference will target participants from academics, think tanks, and representatives from international organizations in both North America and Europe.  The proponents will publish a public work on the conference findings. 

Conference of Defence Associations Institute

18th Annual Graduate Student Symposium

15-16 October 2015 – Kingston, Ontario

Amount Received: $15,000

The goal of this annual symposium is to allow Masters and Doctoral students to debate defence and security issues that impact Canada.  The event will feature two keynote speakers and will give twenty students the opportunity to present their research, respond to questions from an expert moderator and receive feedback from a panel of judges drawn from the defence and academic communities.  The top three presenters will publish their research as part of Conference of Defence Associations Institute Vimy Paper series and the fourth paper will be published through the Royal Canadian Military Institute. 

Royal United Services Institute

The “Russian Spring:” Moscow’s Intervention in Ukraine and Eastern Europe and Implications for International Security

London, UK

Amount Received: $23,320

This research project will draw on a range of Russian and Ukrainian language open-source information in order to produce a highly-detailed overview of Russia’s activities in its near abroad between 2013 and the present, with a particular focus on military intervention and underlying political planning.  The project will also consider the implications for European and international security.  The final product of the research will be a 20,000-word report that will be published as Royal United Services Institute Occasional Paper, which will be presented at a formal paper launch in London. 

Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur les relations internationales du Canada et du Québec

Les priorités de la Présidence américaine au Conseil de l’Arctique (2015-2017)

12 June 2015 – Montreal, Quebec

Amount Received: $6,675

This project consists of a closed workshop involving 15 participants from across academia, industry, NGOs, think tanks and government, which will be followed by an expert brief to a larger audience of students and military personnel.  The goal is to help Canada better understand the US position on the Arctic, how this is linked to its posture in other regions, and the implications for Canada-US cooperation, including on defence and security issues.  A public report will follow the event. 

Université du Québec à Montréal

Terrorisme international et radicalisme au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique : Origines, menaces, conséquences

12 November 2015 – Montreal, Quebec

Amount Received: $20,000

The goal of this symposium was to analyse the growing radicalization occurring in an arc between Syria and Mauritania in the “post-Arab Spring” era.  The symposium was shaped around four themes: (1) the causes of international terrorism today; (2) the links between the collapse of central authorities and growing radicalization in the Middle East; (3) the impact of growing violence on the Sahel region; and (4) the solutions being implemented by the international community.  The symposium planned to host a keynote address and four panels: one would examine the general causes of terrorism, two would look at specific case studies, and the final panel would assess international solutions.  Following the symposium, participants were invited to contribute to a collective publication. 

University of Waterloo

Characterisation of Urban Battlespace: Implications for Combat, Building Damage, and Civilian Casualties in Hybrid Wars

1 July 2015 – 31 March 2016 – Waterloo, Ontario

Amount Received: $25,000

This research project will use satellite imagery and quantitative GIS, data from national censuses, and reports from humanitarian and international organizations to examine the characteristics and impacts of the urban battlespace in which hybrid warfare takes place.  The goal is to use selected case studies develop quantitative metrics for building and population density, measure damage to persons and infrastructure, and examine the implications of these findings for urban combat strategy and managing civilian crises.  Identified case studies include: Grozny during the Chechnyan conflict (1994-1996 and 1999-2009); urban centres in Eastern Ukraine (2014-2015) Gaza under Israeli engagement (2006 on); Beirut during the Hezbollah-Israeli conflict (2006); urban centres in Syria (2011 on); and urban centres in Iraq during both the Iraq war (2003-2011) and the current conflict (up to May 2015).  The University of Waterloo will host a one-day seminar in February 2016 to present the results, which will also be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Round 1 – Applications Receiving Majority Funding

NATO Association of Canada

Canada and NATO: Global Defence and Security Challenges

24 November 2015 – Ottawa, Ontario

Amount Received: $4,662

This conference examined the challenges and opportunities facing NATO, with a particular focus on its ongoing operations in Afghanistan, the impact of the 2014 Wales Summit, and the NATO Readiness Action Plan. 

Chatham House

The Future of US Global Leadership

Fall 2015 – Summer 2016 – London, UK

Amount Received: $16,650

The goal of this research project is to examine how the US’ global leadership is changing, how this will affect its closest allies (including Canada), and whether the next US President will fundamentally impact this shift.  This project will draw on prior work done by Chatham House in this area and will involve further research and extensive interviews with representatives from governments, think tanks and academia.  The proponent will present the research results to a small roundtable of experts for review prior to publication.  A final research paper will be produced in spring 2016.

Conference Board of Canada

September 2015 – June 2016 – Ottawa, Ontario

The Active Shooter: Emerging Security Challenges and Opportunities for Collaboration

Amount Received: $6,660

The goal of this research project is to identify gaps in mandates, response protocols, and capabilities between the stakeholders in active shooter incidents, including law enforcement, military, as well as public and private sector officials.  The research project would develop options for building a better interface for crisis communications.  The project will result in an online report and a freely-accessible webinar. 

Canadian Pugwash Group

The Way Forward to a World Free of Nuclear Weapons

9-12 July 2015 – Pugwash, Nova Scotia

Amount Received: $16,650

The goal of this workshop was to consider the current state and future direction of the principal arms control regimes – conventional and nuclear – and develop concrete suggestions for government on ow to make progress on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, including ideas for how Canada can work more effectively with its military partners in these areas. 

Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

Transparency Report: How and Why Trust is Breaking the Internet

July – December 2015 – Arlington, Virginia, USA

Amount Received: $16,650

This research project examined how the strategic competition for money, power, and control over the internet and internet economy caused the erosion of trust across and between governments, corporations, and citizens.  The researchers looked at how actors are accelerating the fragmentation of the internet, infecting the marketplace and challenging democratic institutions and ideals.  The project will develop realistic policy prescriptions that can be implemented immediately. 

Queen’s University

Defence and Security Economics Workshop 2015: Economic Development and Violence

5 November 2015 – Ottawa, Ontario

Amount Received: $6,660

This annual workshop allows defence and security economists from Canada and abroad to share their research with each other.  Topics for this year included: the outcomes of third party intervention techniques in warzones, the determinants of military expenditures in Africa, and procurement choices among NATO countries following the end of the cold war. 

Queen’s University

Gender Mainstreaming in the Canadian Armed Forces: Benchmarking with NATO Allies and Partners

12-13 November 2015 – Kingston, Ontario

Amount Received: $13,773

The goal of this workshop was to examine gender mainstreaming in the CAF by assessing Canada’s military organizational culture and practices in comparison with those of key NATO allies and partners.  The intent was to use the workshop to produce a policy report and a scholarly article outlining comparisons with NATO allies and partners and providing recommendations on gender mainstreaming for the CAF.  DND and CAF experts were invited to the workshop. 

Round 2 – Applications Receiving Full Funding

Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University

A Manual on International Law Applicable to Military and Security Uses of Outer Space: First Project Plenary

May 2016 – Montreal, Quebec

Amount Received: $25,000

This three-day plenary workshop will develop and launch a project to create a manual on international law applicable to military and security uses of outer space.  The plenary workshop will: determine the roles of all participants in the project; clarify the list of topics to be included in the manual; assign topics to individual experts; determine research methodology; and agree on a timeline for the development of the manual. 

Conference of Defence Associations Institute

84th Conference on Security and Defence

15-16 October 2015 – Ottawa, Ontario

Amount Received: $25,000

This 2-day conference is recognized as one of Canada’s most highly-acclaimed forums on security and defence issues.  The theme of the 2016 conference was National Security Strategies and the Future of Conflict and it focused on five sub-themes: 1) Canadian Security and Defence: Policy, Interests and Culture; 2) Comprehensive Security: Towards Integrated National Security Strategies; 3) New Challenges of Conventional Threats; 4) Terrorism, Non-State Actors, and Conflict Zones; and 5) Autonomous Systms and Faceless Conflict.  The conference consisted of presentations, keynote speeches and panel discussions.

Mount Saint Vincent University

Women in International Security-Canada Workshop: Women in Security across Military and Civilian Lines

17-19 June 2016 – Halifax, Nova Scotia

Amount Received: $25,000

This project will support a three-day workshop focused on eight themes: gender integration in the security sphere; the experiences of female service personnel and veterans; female peacekeepers; the UN policy on Women, Peace and Security; violence against women during conflict and post conflict; female leaders in international security and defence; gender mainstreaming in transition and reintegration policy; and civilian women working in international conflict and post-conflict zones.  Papers and outcomes from the workshop will be pre-published, presented, and submitted to academic journals. 

Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University

A Manual on International Law Applicable to Military and Security Uses of Outer Space - Research and Administrative Assistant

Amount Received: $25,000

This project will support the hiring of a Research and Administrative Assistant to support the Chair of the Project Management Board for the Manual on International Law Applicable to Military and Security Activities in Outer Space.  This Research and Administrative Assistant would assist the Chair in all aspects of overseeing the project to develop a manual on international law applicable to military and security uses of outer space, as well as some research tasks.  DEP funding will cover the salary for six months. 

African Access Consulting

Revisiting Africa in Canadian Security Planning and Assessment

4-6 June 2016 – Calgary, Alberta

Amount Received: $24,850

This two-day workshop will bring together experts on African affairs, Canadian foreign and defence policy, terrorism, peace operations, military planning, military training, intelligence and assessment, and the development-security nexus in order to consider a range of important questions about Africa in the context of Canadian security and defence policy and planning.  Attendance will include both experts and students and a summary report will be produced. 

Project Ploughshares

Meaningful Human Control and Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

7-8 April 2016 – Waterloo, Ontario

Amount Received: $24,632

This two-day workshop is focused on different aspects of the notion of meaningful human control and will provide recommendations on how this principle can guide policy makers when making decisions on lethal autonomous weapons systems.  The follow-on report will outline the current debates, provide an in-depth literature review and identify key developments in international regulations, such as the expert meetings on the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 

Conference of Defence Associations Institute

Strategic Outlook for Canada 2016: Normalcy of Uncertainty

18-19 February 2016 – Ottawa, Ontario

Amount Received: $15,000

This project will support the publication of the 2016 Strategic Outlook for Canada, which will be completed and released at the CDA/CDAI Conference on Security and Defence in February 2016.  The publication will cover the following topics: the international situation (including the Ukraine, Islamic State, and Afghanistan); US foreign policy during President Obama’s last year in office and beyond; Canada’s new government and implications for foreign and defence policy; and Canadian options for responding to crises and conflicts. 

Centre for International and Defence Policy, Queen's University

Bilan de la politique étrangère et de défense d'Obama: la fin de la grande stratégie?

15-17 October 2016 – Poitiers, France

Amount Received: $21,700

This project will bring together renowned scholars from Canada and its allies to discuss the future of American foreign and defence policy.  The intent is to analyze the redefinition of American leadership under President Obama by considering the tools of smart power strategies.  The study aims to provide an overview and initial evaluation of American foreign policy under President Obama and to consider the implications for allies.  The event will result in a policy report outlining recommendations for Canadian foreign and defence policy by leading experts, as well as an edited volume tentatively titled American Smart Power: International Implications.

The Mackenzie Institute

Canadian Defence Needs to Mid-Century: Defence Recapitalization and the Canadian Forces

30-31 March 2016 – Ottawa, Ontario

Amount Received: $25,000

This two day-conference is the third in a series of events over 2015-20169 and will focus on the recapitalization and funding of the CAF to meet defence and security challenges from 2020-2050.  The project intends to engage directly with CAF personnel and DND civilians, as well as professionals from the defence industry to discuss Defence Engagement Priorities as they relate to the global security environment, the current state of materiel in the CAF and recommendations for defence funding. 

Round 2 – Applications Receiving Majority Funding

The Henry L. Stimson Center

Military Spending for a New Strategic Reality

2016 – Washington, DC

Amount Received: $16,650

This project will support three roundtable discussions on military spending.  Themes for each event are: Future Threats and Funding Wars Without an End; Simultaneous Shortfalls in Technological Advancement and Rudimentary Expertise; and Evolution of Arms Control: The New Nuclear Threat.  A short, non-attributed report will be prepared following each event and posted on the Center’s website. 

Centre for International and Defence Policy, Queen's University

Combat Motivation - Past, Present, and Future: The Canadian Context

15-16 October 2016 – Kingston, Ontario

Amount Received: $14,812

This project will support a two-day workshop on “Combat Motivation – Past, Present, and Future: The Canadian Context.”  The goals of the workshop are to explore the factors that contribute to combat motivation and to better understand the Canadian military experience. A key takeaway from the project will be to highlight a number of best-practices to ensure that the Canadian military remains an effective fighting force even under economic constraints.

Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, University of Calgary

18th Annual Graduate Strategic Studies Conference: Security, Strategy, and Defence

25-26 February 2016 – Calgary, Alberta

Amount Received: $6,660

The theme of this two-day event is the strategic effects of terrorism on the Middles East, North America and Canada.  The conference attracts participants from a range of professional and academic backgrounds, including graduate students, serving and retired military personnel, industry representatives and the general public. 

Department of Management and Economics, Royal Military College of Canada

Cost Implications of Combat-Close Public-Private Partnerships in the UK Defence

Amount Received: $7,326

This project supports Professor Ugurhan G. Berkok’s study on the “cost implications of combat-close public-private partnerships (PPP) in the UK Ministry of Defence.”  Professor Berkok is seeking to identify lessons learned from the UK’s use of public-private partnerships that could be applied to the Royal Canadian Air Force’s interest in using PPPs to provide Search and Rescue services from Trenton.  This funding supports a visit to the UK Ministry of Defence, as well as participation in conferences in Turkey and Italy. 

École nationale d'Administration publique (ENAP)

Tensions et réformes du processus d'approvisionnement militaire au Canada

12 May 2016 – Montreal, Quebec

Amount Received: $12,357

This project will support a conference focused on the tensions between economic interests, political considerations, and security concerns in the military procurement process.  The conference will identify key lessons learned from allies that may be applicable in Canada with respect to defence acquisition reforms. 

Le Forum St-Laurent (FSL), Université Laval, UQAM, Université de Montréal

Forum St-Laurent sur la sécurité internationale

6 May 2016

Amount Received: $20,000

This project will support a forum on international security, which will look at four themes: security challenges in West Africa; new dimensions of security; the role of the USA in the global security environment; and the future of multilateral coalitions and the roles of the armed forces in a complex and evolving security environment. 

China Institute, University of Alberta

The Fourth Asia Pacific-Arctic Workshop: Evolving Role and Posture of China, Canada, the US, and Other Stakeholders

July 2016 – Beijing, China

Amount Received: $16,650

This project requested funding to support a fourth Asia Pacific – Arctic Workshop on the “Evolving Role and Posture of China, Canada, the US, and Other Stakeholders.  The workshop will bring scholars and government officials from Canada, the US, China and other regional states to discuss three dimensions of maritime security in both the Arctic and the South China Sea, including geopolitics and security, international shipping, and prospects and challenges for cooperation. 

Quantum Alberta Institute, University of Alberta

Quantum Alberta Workshop: Advanced Quantum Technologies

16 May 2016 – Alberta

Amount Received: $7,560

This workshop aims to support the transition of new quantum technologies from the academic environment to industrial and defence workshop.  The workshop will address the technological capabilities enabled by the quantum-focused research portfolio of Quantum Alberta, as well as the impact of this technology on the global security environment and the types of operations and activities that DND and the CAF will face in the future.

 

ANNEX B – EXPERT BRIEFING SERIES 2015/2016

13 May 2015

Dr. David Kilcullen

Chairman, Caerus Global Solutions

Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Today’s Operational Context

28 May 2015

Brian Finlay

Vice President, Stimson Centre (Washington, DC)

Leveraging Industry to Address Cross-Border Security Threats

25 September 2015

Dr. Jacob Parakilas

Assistant Project Director, US Project, Chatham House

A Changing Security Environment: The Needed Response from NATO and its Member States

30 October 2015

Paul Sharre

Senior Fellow and Director of the 20YY Initiative, Center for a New American Security

Autonomous Systems and Emerging Technologies

5 November 2015

Jonathan Berkshire Miller

Director, Council on International Policy, Senior Advisor on Asia-Pacific, Canada Border Services Agency, and Sasakawa Peace Foundation Fellow, Center for Strategic International Studies

Japan’s Security and Defence Posture in East Asia: Evolution or Revolution?

2 December 2015

Dr. Jon R. Lindsay

Assistant Professor of Digital Media and Global Affairs, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto

China, Cybersecurity, and Military Operations in the 21st Century and Cross-Domain Deterrence in Theory and Practice

15 December 2015

Linda Robinson

Senior International Policy Analyst, RAND Corporation and Member, Council on Foreign Relations

A Briefing on the Coalition Strategy to Counter the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria

16 December 2015

Richard A. Matthew

Professor of International and Environmental Policies, University of California at Irvine and Founding Director, Center of Unconventional Security Affairs

Environmental Change, Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding

13 January 2016

Jacob Zenn

Analyst, African and Eurasian Affairs, The Jamestown Foundation

New Competition, New Capabilities: A Primer on Violent Non-State Actors in Africa for 2016

25 February 2016

Dr. Alex Wilner

Assistant Professor of International Relations, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University

Defeating and Deterring ISIS: Emerging Threats, Evolving Strategies

22 March 2016

Dr. Stéfanie von Hlatky

Assistant Professor of Political Studies, Queen’s University and Director, Queen’s Centre for International and Defence Policy

The Relevance of Deterrence in an Age of Hybrid War: Can Canada and its Allies Adapt?

TOTAL EXPENDITURES – FISCAL YEAR 2015-2016

(Expert Briefing Series)

$15,688.11

 

 

ANNEX C – Management Action Plan

Findings Relevance

Key Finding 1: The Defence Engagement Program contributes to a departmental need for independent analysis and discussion of Canadian security and defence issues.

Key Finding 2: The Defence Engagement Program is aligned with federal roles and responsibilities.

Key Finding 3: The Defence Engagement Program is consistent with federal government priorities and DND/CAF strategic outcomes.

Findings-Performance (Effectiveness)

Key Finding 4: The DEP provides a means to establish limited networks, promote dialogue, and support the knowledge base of security and defence issues for Canadians.

Key Finding 5: There are opportunities to improve communication and the dissemination of information resulting from the Targeted Engagement Grants and the Expert Briefing Series, within the DND/CAF, and throughout the security and defence community.

Key Finding 6: The Expert Briefing Series has provided an opportunity to acquire pertinent information on key security and defence policy issues in a timely manner.

Key Finding 7: With the cancellation of DEP Fellowship and Scholarship funding in 2014, the DEP is no longer fully achieving one of the initial program objectives: to foster the next generation of security and defence scholars.

Key Finding 8: The Targeted Engagement Grants and the Expert Briefing Series have each addressed the annual Defence Team Engagement Priorities and have contributed to increasing the understanding of new and emerging security and defence challenges.

Key Finding 9: The attribution of DEP activities to timely and relevant policy advice can be inferred, but is not quantifiable.

Findings-Performance (Efficiency and Economy)

Key Finding 10: The indirect costs required to administer the DEP are appropriate and are comparable to similar programs.

Key Finding 11: The coordination and consultation between the DEP Secretariat and external outreach programs offered by other government departments and agencies has promoted a whole-of-government approach and economy of effort.

Key Finding 12: The DEP application process is efficient and the DEP Secretariat is effective and responsive.

Key Finding 13: The funding limit for individual Targeted Engagement Grants is generally sufficient, however additional funding flexibility would be beneficial to the DEP.

Management Action Plan

ADM(Pol) Comment: On behalf of the Defence Engagement Program (DEP), I fully accept the following recommendations and support the target dates for implemented responses. Building on the successes of this modest yet influential program, the recommendations will help to inform us as we look to expand the DEP when we seek to renew this program. ________________________________________________________________

ADM(RS) Recommendation

1.         In addition to the DEP Annual Report, establish and implement the means to disseminate information throughout the year on the results of DEP activities. Recipients should include the Defence Team Steering Committee, other government department representatives and the security and defence academic community.

Management Action

For DND/CAF stakeholders, improvements to the DEP Intranet site will be a key step toward fulfilling this recommendation. In addition, beginning July 2016, DEP will disseminate a quarterly email (newsletter) to OGDs and other external stakeholders for the three quarters of the FY in which the Annual Report is not published. Target Date: July 2016

ADM(RS) Recommendation

2.         When seeking the renewal of the Defence Engagement Program, formally incorporate the Expert Briefing Series as a component of the program.

Management Action

DEP intends on formally requesting the incorporation of the Expert Briefing Series as a core component of its program in the upcoming TB submission.Target Date: July 2017

ADM(RS) Recommendation

3.         Assess whether there is a need and tangible benefit to the DND/CAF and the Government of Canada to directly support the development of Canadian scholars in the fields of security and defence.           

Management Action

DEP will assess whether there is a need and tangible benefit to the DND/CAF and the Government of Canada to directly support the development of Canadian scholars in the fields of security and defence. This will be done through internal (ADM Pol and Defence Team Steering Committee) and external consultations (universities and think-tanks). Such a re-examination would also need to be submitted to the appropriate departmental governance body. All consultations would be completed prior to the upcoming TB submission.Target Date: May 2017

ADM(RS) Recommendation

4.         Develop a feedback mechanism to assess the extent that funded DEP activities contribute to better awareness and understanding of new and emerging security and defence challenges.

Management Action

Feedback forms will be developed for internal and OGD stakeholders, asking about the extent to which DEP grant reports and Expert Briefings are useful for their work.Target Date: July 2016

ADM(RS) Recommendation

5.         To provide the DEP with additional funding flexibility, consider increasing the funding ceiling and funding period for a limited number of Targeted Engagement Grants.

Management Action

DEP will examine the notion of funding flexibility internally (DSCO) as well as through local consultations (ADM(Pol) and Defence Team Steering Committee). Results will be proposed in the upcoming TB submission.Target Date: May 2017

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